Formative research for the design of a scalable water, sanitation, and hygiene mobile health program: CHoBI7 mobile health program

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background.  The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility.

Effectiveness of emergency water treatment practices in refugee camps in South Sudan

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

Objective To investigate the concentration of residual chlorine in drinking water supplies in refugee camps, South Sudan, March–April 2013. Methods For each of three refugee camps, we measured physical and chemical characteristics of water supplies at four points after distribution: (i) directly from tapstands; (ii) after collection; (iii) after transport to households; and (iv) after several hours of household storage.

Community-Centered Responses to Ebola in Urban Liberia:The View from Below

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

Background. The West African Ebola epidemic has demonstrated that the existing range of medical and epidemiological responses to emerging disease outbreaks is insufficient, especially in post-conflict contexts with exceedingly poor healthcare infrastructures. In this context, community-based responses have proven vital for containing Ebola virus disease (EVD) and shifting the epidemic curve. Despite a surge in interest in local innovations that effectively contained the epidemic, the mechanisms for community-based response remain unclear.

Childs play: Harnessing play and curiosity motives to improve child handwashing in a humanitarian setting

Publication year
2019
Country

In humanitarian emergency settings there is need for low cost and rapidly deployable interventions to protect vulnerable children, in- and out-of-school, from diarrhoeal diseases. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce diarrhoea but interventions specifically targeting children's handwashing behaviour in humanitarian settings have not been tested. Traditional children's handwashing promotion interventions have been school-focused, resource-intensive and reliant on health-based messaging.

Barriers and Facilitators to Chlorine Tablet Distribution and Use in Emergencies: A Qualitative Assessment

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Chlorine tablets are commonly distributed for household water treatment in emergencies. However, confirmed use after distribution ranges widely (from 7–87%), which raises concerns about chlorine tablet effectiveness, as measured by acceptance and appropriate use. To investigate chlorine tablet effectiveness, we conducted nine key informant interviews (KIIs) on tablet distribution in emergencies in general, five KIIs on chlorine taste and odor acceptance and rejection specifically, and a literature review on chlorine taste and odor concerns.

Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges

Publication year
2019
Country

Cholera continues to be a significant problem in humanitarian settings, with recent outbreaks in displaced populations in South Sudan, Yemen, Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Haiti, and Iraq. The success of cholera prevention and control in refugee camps over the past 2 decades highlights the possibility of managing this deadly disease, even in complicated humanitarian crises.

WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Purpose. The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols. Design/Methodology/Approach.

Water, sanitation and hygiene partners collaborating to combat severe cholera outbreaks during the State of Emergency in Zimbabwe

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

This paper aims to understand the value of collaboration in a ‘state of emergency’ situation, featuring the case of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in Zimbabwe over the period 2008–2012. During this period, a group of stakeholders engaged in a structured collaboration, called the WASH cluster. This initiative was taken to respond to severe and frequent cholera outbreaks.

Acceptability, effectiveness, and fouling of PointOne membrane filters distributed in South Sudan

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

The Sawyer PointOne household hollow fiber membrane filter (PointOne) efficaciously removes microbiological indicators in the laboratory, and is increasingly considered for emergency response. To our knowledge, PointOne effectiveness in emergencies had not been evaluated. In South Sudan, 773 PointOnes were distributed.

Social and feminist design in emergency contexts: the Women’s Social Architecture Project, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh

Publication year
2019
Country

The rapid influx of Rohingya refugees into Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, has led to the formation of huge camps, built on difficult terrain, short of space and with high population density. All these factors present numerous challenges to agencies seeking to provide latrines, water points, and bathing facilities. Feedback gathered from women and girls highlighted significant challenges around access, safety, privacy, and dignity, including management of personal hygiene and menstruation.