Global Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Components in Rapid Response Mechanisms and Rapid Response Teams in Cholera Outbreak Settings

Publication year
2019
Emergency type

In recent outbreak settings, the use of rapid response teams (RRTs) to support the WASH sector has increased.
RRTs have been used as part of the response to cholera outbreaks in countries such as Haiti, Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with the scope of these teams varying widely. As the
presence of RRTs becomes more common in outbreak settings, it is important to better understand and document
the different types of models in use.

Shop vouchers for Hygiene Kits in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Oxfam’s Public Health Promotion team used a voucher programme to provide beneficiaries with essential hygiene items through local shops. The voucher system was chosen so that beneficiaries could access hygiene items in a normal and dignified way, and in order to pilot an innovative approach to dealing with the challenges of in-kind distributions in an urban setting.

Strengthening Market Systems that Provide Water and Hygiene Items for Cholera Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness in Haiti

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items. The market analysis found that the majority of households already purchase soap from local traders, but very few have handwashing facilities in their home. A good uptake of chlorine-based disinfection products was observed, including specific products to treat water for drinking.

‘It was a ravage!’: lived experiences of epidemic cholera in rural Haiti

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Introduction A cholera epidemic began in Haiti over 8 years ago, prompting numerous, largely quantitative research studies. Assessments of local ‘knowledge, attitudes and practices’ relevant for cholera control have relied primarily on cross-sectional surveys. The voices of affected Haitians have rarely been elevated in the scientific literature on the topic.

After the flood: an evaluation of in-home drinking water treatment with combined flocculent-disinfectant following Tropical Storm Jeanne — Gonaives, Haiti, 2004

Publication year
2007
Emergency type
Country

Tropical Storm Jeanne struck Haiti in September 2004, causing widespread flooding which contaminated water sources, displaced thousands of families and killed approximately 2,800 people. Local leaders distributed PuR, a flocculent-disinfectant product for household water treatment, to affected populations. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, practices, and drinking water quality among a sample of PuRw recipients. We interviewed representatives of 100 households in three rural communities who received PuR and PuR-related education.

Hygiene promotion: determining what works

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

For people affected by disaster, whether wars, earthquakes, or disease epidemics, conditions of life can change suddenly and in ways that require rapid adjustments. Often, adaptation includes taking greater care to prevent transmission of disease, in order to minimize the new threats to public health.

The Case-Area Targeted Rapid Response Strategy to Control Cholera in Haiti: a Four-year Implementation Study

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a large-scale cholera epidemic. The Haitian government, UNICEF and other international partners launched an unprecedented nationwide alert-response strategy in July 2013. Coordinated NGOs recruited local rapid response mobile teams to conduct case-area targeted interventions (CATIs), including education sessions, household decontamination by chlorine spraying, and distribution of chlorine tablets.

Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease.

Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights - CLTS in Post-Emergency and Fragile States Settings

Publication year
2016

As  an  alternative,  CLTS  can  appear  fundamentally  mismatched  with  post-emergency  and  fragile  states  contexts:  the  core  principle  that  sanitation  hardware  should  not  be  subsidised  can  conflict  with  urgent  need,  and  with  what  some  will  view  as  a  contravention  to  the  right  of  human  assistance.  Affected  populations  have  often  lost  all  their  wealth,  and  are  traumatised,  physically  weak,  insecure,  and  at  the  point  of  greatest  dependency  on  the  aid  community.  Furthermore,  the  least  able  memb

Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment

Publication year
2008
Emergency type

Point-of-use  (POU)  water  treatment  with  sodium  hypochlorite  (NaOCl)  has been  proven  to  reduce  diarrheal  disease  in  developing  countries.  However, program  implementation  is  complicated  by  unclear  free  chlorine  residual guidelines  for  POU  water  treatment  and  difficulties  in  determining  appropriate dosage  recommendations.  The  author  presents  evidence  supporting  proposed criteria  for  household  water  treatment  for  free  chlorine  residuals  of  <  2.0  mg/L1  h  after  NaOCl  addition  and  >  0.2  mg/L  aft