‘It was a ravage!’: lived experiences of epidemic cholera in rural Haiti

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Introduction A cholera epidemic began in Haiti over 8 years ago, prompting numerous, largely quantitative research studies. Assessments of local ‘knowledge, attitudes and practices’ relevant for cholera control have relied primarily on cross-sectional surveys. The voices of affected Haitians have rarely been elevated in the scientific literature on the topic.

After the flood: an evaluation of in-home drinking water treatment with combined flocculent-disinfectant following Tropical Storm Jeanne — Gonaives, Haiti, 2004

Publication year
2007
Emergency type
Country

Tropical Storm Jeanne struck Haiti in September 2004, causing widespread flooding which contaminated water sources, displaced thousands of families and killed approximately 2,800 people. Local leaders distributed PuR, a flocculent-disinfectant product for household water treatment, to affected populations. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, practices, and drinking water quality among a sample of PuRw recipients. We interviewed representatives of 100 households in three rural communities who received PuR and PuR-related education.

Hygiene promotion: determining what works

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

For people affected by disaster, whether wars, earthquakes, or disease epidemics, conditions of life can change suddenly and in ways that require rapid adjustments. Often, adaptation includes taking greater care to prevent transmission of disease, in order to minimize the new threats to public health.

The Case-Area Targeted Rapid Response Strategy to Control Cholera in Haiti: a Four-year Implementation Study

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a large-scale cholera epidemic. The Haitian government, UNICEF and other international partners launched an unprecedented nationwide alert-response strategy in July 2013. Coordinated NGOs recruited local rapid response mobile teams to conduct case-area targeted interventions (CATIs), including education sessions, household decontamination by chlorine spraying, and distribution of chlorine tablets.

Minimizing the Risk of Disease Transmission in Emergency Settings: Novel In Situ Physico-Chemical Disinfection of Pathogen-Laden Hospital Wastewaters

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

The operation of a health care facility, such as a cholera or Ebola treatment center in an emergency setting, results in the production of pathogen-laden wastewaters that may potentially lead to onward transmission of the disease.

Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights - CLTS in Post-Emergency and Fragile States Settings

Publication year
2016

As  an  alternative,  CLTS  can  appear  fundamentally  mismatched  with  post-emergency  and  fragile  states  contexts:  the  core  principle  that  sanitation  hardware  should  not  be  subsidised  can  conflict  with  urgent  need,  and  with  what  some  will  view  as  a  contravention  to  the  right  of  human  assistance.  Affected  populations  have  often  lost  all  their  wealth,  and  are  traumatised,  physically  weak,  insecure,  and  at  the  point  of  greatest  dependency  on  the  aid  community.  Furthermore,  the  least  able  memb

Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment

Publication year
2008
Emergency type

Point-of-use  (POU)  water  treatment  with  sodium  hypochlorite  (NaOCl)  has been  proven  to  reduce  diarrheal  disease  in  developing  countries.  However, program  implementation  is  complicated  by  unclear  free  chlorine  residual guidelines  for  POU  water  treatment  and  difficulties  in  determining  appropriate dosage  recommendations.  The  author  presents  evidence  supporting  proposed criteria  for  household  water  treatment  for  free  chlorine  residuals  of  <  2.0  mg/L1  h  after  NaOCl  addition  and  >  0.2  mg/L  aft

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Treatment and Prevention of Cholera, Haiti, 2010

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

In response to the recent cholera outbreak, a public health response targeted high-risk communities, including resource-poor communities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A survey covering knowledge and practices indicated that hygiene messages were received and induced behavior change, specifically related to water treatment practices. Self-reported household water treatment increased from 30.3% to 73.9%.

Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Methods in Acute Emergency Response: Case Study Results from Nepal, Indonesia, Kenya, and Haiti

Publication year
2012
Emergency type

Household water treatment (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination, have long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence of HWTS efficacy in the development context, effectiveness in the acute emergency context has not been rigorously assessed. We investigated HWTS effectiveness in response to four acute emergencies by surveying 1521 targeted households and testing stored water for free chlorine residual and fecal indicators.

Innovative designs and approaches in sanitation when responding to challenging and complex humanitarian contexts in urban areas

Publication year
2012
Emergency type

As recent emergencies have shown, there are still significant challenges in the timely provision of safe sanitation in natural disasters or conflict situations. In urban emergencies or areas where it is impossible to dig simple pit latrines because of high water tables, hard rock, or lack of permission, it takes agencies considerable time to construct elevated latrines or alternative designs such as urine diversion toilets.