In order to ensure maximum consumer benefits (e.g. public health, livelihood), drinking water supply technologies in developing countries should be adopted taking into consideration locally available skills, resources as well as cultural and environmental settings. This paper presents case-studies from several developing countries in different geographical regions of water supply projects utilizing methods ranging from biological treatment offered slow sand filtration systems to chemically-ass
Inadequate drinking water quality from tanker trucks following a tsunami disaster, Aceh, Indonesia, June 2005
A number of organizations engaged in tanker trucks to deliver water to populations affected by the 2005 tsunami in Indonesia. Many relief organizations assumed that the trucks provided safe water, even promoting tanker truck water as safe water; however, no surveillance systems were in place to monitor tank truck water quality. We surveyed 40 tanker trucks operated by 12 organizations. A total of 75 water samples were tested for residual free chlorine, and of these, 54 were also tested for E.coli.
Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Methods in Acute Emergency Response: Case Study Results from Nepal, Indonesia, Kenya, and Haiti
Household water treatment (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination, have long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence of HWTS efficacy in the development context, effectiveness in the acute emergency context has not been rigorously assessed. We investigated HWTS effectiveness in response to four acute emergencies by surveying 1521 targeted households and testing stored water for free chlorine residual and fecal indicators.
Potable water issues during disaster response and recovery: Lessons learned from recent coastal disasters
An immediate need and vital resource, potable water becomes critical in the aftermath of a disaster; affected communities cannot recover and return to normal conditions until water infrastructure is restored. This paper explores the public health impacts associated with the lack of water supply in the immediate aftermath of a coastal disaster, the effects of coastal disasters on various water supply infrastructures, and strategies and solutions for supplying potable water to victims after a major coastal disaster.
The supply of adequate amounts of safe water for drinking and hygiene during natural disasters or armed conflict can be compromised and is one of the priorities in public health interventions to prevent the spread of disease. When surface waters are the only viable source, emergency water treatment kits are usually deployed by relief agencies for the supply of water. One option is the Oxfam Field Up‐flow ‘Clarifier’ Kit, which was designed to treat raw waters with high turbidities to adequate levels [i.e. <5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)] and at a relatively high yield (i.e.
This document highlights the key messages, lesson, and experiences of both course facilitators and participants from RedR's pilot course on the topic of WASH in urban emergency response. The course covered understanding the context of urban disasters, the populations affected, and how WASH techniques fit into these contexts. The WASH sector in the urban context includes solid waste management, vector control, hygiene promotion, and water treatment options.
Factors associated with E. coli contamination of household drinking water among tsunami and earthquake survivors, Indonesia
The December 2004 tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia, destroyed drinking water infrastructure, placing over 500,000 displaced persons at increased risk of waterborne disease. In June 2005, we assessed the relationship of water handling behaviors to household water quality in three districts: Aceh Besar, Simeulue, and Nias. We surveyed 1,127 households from 21 communities and tested stored drinking water.