Global Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Components in Rapid Response Mechanisms and Rapid Response Teams in Cholera Outbreak Settings

Publication year
2019
Emergency type

In recent outbreak settings, the use of rapid response teams (RRTs) to support the WASH sector has increased.
RRTs have been used as part of the response to cholera outbreaks in countries such as Haiti, Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with the scope of these teams varying widely. As the
presence of RRTs becomes more common in outbreak settings, it is important to better understand and document
the different types of models in use.

Strengthening Market Systems that Provide Water and Hygiene Items for Cholera Mitigation and Emergency Preparedness in Haiti

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

In the context of the cholera epidemics in Haiti, a pre-crisis market analysis (PCMA) was conducted in Artibonite to study the supply of and demand for various water- and hygiene-related items. The market analysis found that the majority of households already purchase soap from local traders, but very few have handwashing facilities in their home. A good uptake of chlorine-based disinfection products was observed, including specific products to treat water for drinking.

Prevention and control of cholera with household and community water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions: A scoping review of current international guidelines

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Introduction. Cholera remains a frequent cause of outbreaks globally, particularly in areas with inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Cholera is spread through faecaloral routes, and studies demonstrate that ingestion of Vibrio cholerae occurs from consuming contaminated food and water, contact with cholera cases and transmission from contaminated environmental point sources.

‘It was a ravage!’: lived experiences of epidemic cholera in rural Haiti

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Introduction A cholera epidemic began in Haiti over 8 years ago, prompting numerous, largely quantitative research studies. Assessments of local ‘knowledge, attitudes and practices’ relevant for cholera control have relied primarily on cross-sectional surveys. The voices of affected Haitians have rarely been elevated in the scientific literature on the topic.

Description of the targeted WASH response strategy implemented during the cholera outbreak of 2017-2018 in Kinshasa, DRC

Publication year
2019
Emergency type

Background. Rapid control of cholera outbreaks is a significant challenge in overpopulated urban settings, and documented results on field interventions are scarce. During the 2017-2018 period, Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo, experienced a sharp increase in cholera cases that showed potential to quickly spread throughout the city. A novel targeted WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) strategy was implemented to quickly stem the cholera outbreak.

Hygiene promotion: determining what works

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

For people affected by disaster, whether wars, earthquakes, or disease epidemics, conditions of life can change suddenly and in ways that require rapid adjustments. Often, adaptation includes taking greater care to prevent transmission of disease, in order to minimize the new threats to public health.

Social Science in Epidemics: Cholera lessons learned

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

This report is the first installment of the ‘Social Science in Epidemics’ series, commissioned by the USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Direct Assistance (OFDA). In this series, past outbreaks are reviewed in order to identify social science ‘entry points’ for emergency interventions and preparedness activities.

Broad approaches to cholera control in Asia: Water sanitation and handwashing

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Cholera has been eliminated as a public health problem in high-income countries that have implemented sanitation system separating the community’s fecal waste from their drinking water and food supply. These expensive, highly-engineered systems, first developed in London over 150 years ago, have not reached low-income high-risk communities across Asia.

Formative research for the design of a scalable water, sanitation, and hygiene mobile health program: CHoBI7 mobile health program

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background.  The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility.

Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges

Publication year
2019
Country

Cholera continues to be a significant problem in humanitarian settings, with recent outbreaks in displaced populations in South Sudan, Yemen, Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Haiti, and Iraq. The success of cholera prevention and control in refugee camps over the past 2 decades highlights the possibility of managing this deadly disease, even in complicated humanitarian crises.