Delivering water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to women and children in conflict settings: a systematic review

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Background. Access to safe water and sanitation facilities and the adoption of effective hygiene practices are fundamental to reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality globally. In armed conflict settings, inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure poses major health risks for women and children.

Water Vouchers Evaluation Report Gaza

Publication year
2013
Emergency type
Country

A participatory assessment on disaster risk reduction (DRR) was undertaken in GAZA governorate in 2011, OXFAM being the lead agency within the WASH cluster emergency response and preparedness in this area. Three vulnerable neighbourhoods (AL MALALHA, AL MOGRAGHA and AL ZARGA), were identified and an integrated approach has been implemented in the past 2 years, including WASH, Advocacy, Psycho-social support and DRR components.

Water, crises and conflict in MENA: how can water service providers improve their resilience?

Publication year
2017
Country

Protracted conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have left tens of millions of people in need of humanitarian and development assistance to have access to water. But the capacity of local water service providers (state-owned and private) to maintain adequate levels of services has decreased as conflicts and population movements across the region have continued, mainly towards urban areas.

A tale of two cities: restoring water services in Kabul and Monrovia

Publication year
2009

Kabul and Monrovia, the respective capitals of Afghanistan and Liberia, have recently emerged from long-lasting armed conflicts. In both cities, a large number of organisations took part in emergency water supply provision and later in the rehabilitation of water systems. Based on field research, this paper establishes a parallel between the operations carried out in the two settings, highlighting similarities and analysing the two most common strategies.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.

Effectiveness of Multilevel Risk Management Emergency Response Activities To Ensure Free Chlorine Residual in Household Drinking Water in Southern Syria

Publication year
2018
Country

To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multilevel risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder.

Water Supply in a War Zone: A Preliminary Analysis of Two Urban Water Tanker Supply Systems in the Republic of Yemen

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

This discussion  paper  summarizes  the  results  and  implications  of  a  study  commissioned  by  the  World  Bank  to  conduct  a  rapid  assessment  of  the  state  of  private  water  tanker  supply  systems  in  two  Yemeni  cities,  Sana’a  and  Aden.  The  study  emanated  from  the  World  Bank’s  Water,  Sanitation,  and  Health  (WASH)  Poverty  Diagnostic  for  the  Republic  of  Yemen,  which  identified  serious  gaps  in  access  to  basic  water  and  sanitation  services  (World  Bank  2017).  A  combination  of  poverty,  water  scarcit

Water Management in Fragile Systems

Publication year
2018
Country

Fragility has become the reality in several countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Armed conflict and forced displacement are taking an enormous toll on human lives, with the region accounting for about 60 percent of the estimated global total of battle-related casualties since the turn of the millennium. The fragility of these countries compound the region's water problems.

Provision of sustainable sanitation in emergency situations: role of ecosan

Publication year
2006

This paper describes the potential of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and in particular of urine-diversion dehydrating (UDD) toilets, to provide sustainable excreta disposal in emergency situations in low-income countries. Three case studies of emergency sanitation were analysed: El Salvador (hurricane), Afghanistan (civil war) and Pakistan (earthquake). The analysis of these case studies has shown that the systems implemented in the long-term phase of the emergency were sometimes more sustainable than what was in place before the emergency occurred.