A tale of two cities: restoring water services in Kabul and Monrovia

Publication year
2009

Kabul and Monrovia, the respective capitals of Afghanistan and Liberia, have recently emerged from long-lasting armed conflicts. In both cities, a large number of organisations took part in emergency water supply provision and later in the rehabilitation of water systems. Based on field research, this paper establishes a parallel between the operations carried out in the two settings, highlighting similarities and analysing the two most common strategies.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.

Effectiveness of Multilevel Risk Management Emergency Response Activities To Ensure Free Chlorine Residual in Household Drinking Water in Southern Syria

Publication year
2018
Country

To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multilevel risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder.

Water Supply in a War Zone: A Preliminary Analysis of Two Urban Water Tanker Supply Systems in the Republic of Yemen

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

This discussion  paper  summarizes  the  results  and  implications  of  a  study  commissioned  by  the  World  Bank  to  conduct  a  rapid  assessment  of  the  state  of  private  water  tanker  supply  systems  in  two  Yemeni  cities,  Sana’a  and  Aden.  The  study  emanated  from  the  World  Bank’s  Water,  Sanitation,  and  Health  (WASH)  Poverty  Diagnostic  for  the  Republic  of  Yemen,  which  identified  serious  gaps  in  access  to  basic  water  and  sanitation  services  (World  Bank  2017).  A  combination  of  poverty,  water  scarcit

Water Management in Fragile Systems

Publication year
2018
Country

Fragility has become the reality in several countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Armed conflict and forced displacement are taking an enormous toll on human lives, with the region accounting for about 60 percent of the estimated global total of battle-related casualties since the turn of the millennium. The fragility of these countries compound the region's water problems.

Provision of sustainable sanitation in emergency situations: role of ecosan

Publication year
2006

This paper describes the potential of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and in particular of urine-diversion dehydrating (UDD) toilets, to provide sustainable excreta disposal in emergency situations in low-income countries. Three case studies of emergency sanitation were analysed: El Salvador (hurricane), Afghanistan (civil war) and Pakistan (earthquake). The analysis of these case studies has shown that the systems implemented in the long-term phase of the emergency were sometimes more sustainable than what was in place before the emergency occurred.

Access to emergency sanitation for Pakistani women: a case study in Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Publication year
2015
Country

This paper shares the experience of Action Against Hunger in Pakistan to look for solutions to help women address their individual needs for defecation and menstruation. Displaced and host families are supported by a traditional emergency water, sanitation and hygiene response, but cultural norms and availability of facilities were hiding the specific issues faced by women. The project combined discussion platforms for both women and men, awareness about sanitation risks, and provision of individual items for safer management of sanitary concerns.

Keeping it simple: a gender-specific sanitation tool for emergencies

Publication year
2014
Emergency type
Country

Mainstreaming gender in an emergency water and sanitation (WatSan) response can be difficult as standard consultations and participation processes take too much time. To facilitate a rapid response that includes women's needs, a simple Gender and Sanitation Tool has been developed that can also be used by less experienced staff. The tool is a step-by-step guide on how to collect required data to define design parameters for sanitation facilities, based on ad hoc consultations with women who will be their users.

Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting

Publication year
2015
Country

The performance and acceptability of the Nerox™ membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%.