Mainstreaming gender in an emergency water and sanitation (WatSan) response can be difficult as standard consultations and participation processes take too much time. To facilitate a rapid response that includes women's needs, a simple Gender and Sanitation Tool has been developed that can also be used by less experienced staff. The tool is a step-by-step guide on how to collect required data to define design parameters for sanitation facilities, based on ad hoc consultations with women who will be their users.
The performance and acceptability of the Nerox™ membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%.
Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well-being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda.
The water supply of the rural coastal areas in Sri Lanka is provided by private open dug wells, most of which have been flooded by sea water during the tsunami. The salinity of the well affected proved not to be the main problem, and early attempts to rehabilitate wells failed. Salinity reduction can only be achieved naturally, through the recharge of the aquifer. The true challenge for rural water supply is represented by bacteriological and agricultural contamination and sustainability of handpumps.
Refugee populations often flee with very little belongings and lack appropriate hygiene infrastructure in an environment that is unfamiliar to them. For women and girls, this also means that it is more difficult for them to have menstrual hygiene management (MHM). MHM is important in emergencies because it reduces the risk of infection to girls and women, provides empowerment to engage in activities and survival during emergencies, and the provision of safe facilities reduces risk of sexual abuse.
Working with Markets and the local Government while responding to the WASH needs of the Syrian crisis
This briefing paper focuses on WASH during the Syrian Refugee Crisis with a focus on responses in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria and how Oxfam's WASH responses have evolved overtime. Responses started with typical distribution assistance, to examining the opportunities stemming from the local market with a WASH lens while incorporating the challenges of working in Syria.
This article presents the experience of using the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach in a recent programme in Somalia and explains some of the adaptations that were necessary to adjust to the specifics of a fragile and insecure context. The article goes on to explore the applicability of CLTS in fragile and insecure contexts more generally, using examples from South Sudan, Chad, and Afghanistan, and argues that in some ways it is an ideal approach for overcoming some of the challenges of working in these areas.
This document highlights the key messages, lesson, and experiences of both course facilitators and participants from RedR's pilot course on the topic of WASH in urban emergency response. The course covered understanding the context of urban disasters, the populations affected, and how WASH techniques fit into these contexts. The WASH sector in the urban context includes solid waste management, vector control, hygiene promotion, and water treatment options.
Demystifying Gender: Lessons Learned from the Implementation of Minimum Commitments fo Gender Programming in Emergency WASH Response - A Case Study from the DRC
Children under 18 can represent 50% or more of a crisis-affected population. While existing emergency WASH literature often refers to the hardware requirements of children, particularly to excreta disposal options, it almost never takes into account the needs of children of different ages and more often provides very superficial information. Similarly, literature on hygiene promotion focuses on primary school age children; meanwhile case studies and examples from the field of how to adapt WASH programmes to suit children's needs are also very limited.
Hygiene promotion in emergencies: A fortuitous comparison The case of Bentiu IDP Camps, Unity state, South Sudan
In this paper, we argue for including a full hygiene promotion intervention as an early part of emergency response. In an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp in Bentiu, Republic of South Sudan, it has proven to be a strong complement to the construction of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities and WASH non-food item (NFI) distribution. Comparison between two camps with and without hygiene promotion intervention was made possible by the difficulty in recruiting hygiene promoters in one of the two camps.