Despite documented health benefits of household water treatment and storage (HWTS), achieving sustained use remains challenging. In prior evaluations of a long-term HWTS program in Haiti, multiple marketing interventions failed to increase use or had prohibitively high costs. Using mobile phones is a potentially cost-effective way to change HWTS behavior. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the impact of sending short-message service (SMS) messages to promote household chlorination in this program in Haiti.
Diarrhoeal disease outbreaks associated with sanitation provision failures in refugee camps worldwide: a literature review
The objective of this review is to identify sanitation failures that have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease outbreaks among displaced populations living in camps. Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health) and reference lists were searched for peer-reviewed literature using a systematic approach. Articles published since 1960 describing both diarrhoeal disease outbreaks and sanitation characteristics in camps hosting displaced populations were included.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are key to reducing the burden of disease associated with outbreaks, and are commonly implemented in emergency response. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature by developing theory of change models, developing inclusion criteria, conducting the search, selecting evaluations for inclusion, assessing the quality of the evidence, and analysing the included evaluations.
Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well-being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda.
Point-of-use water treatment and diarrhoea reduction in the emergency context: an effectiveness trial in Liberia
Communicable diseases are of particular concern in conflict and disaster-affected populations that reside in camp settings. In the acute emergency phase, diarrhoeal diseases have accounted for more than 40% of deaths among camp residents. Clear limitations exist in current water treatment technologies, and few products are capable of treating turbid water. We describe the findings of a 12-week effectiveness study of point-of-use water treatment with a flocculant–disinfectant among 400 households in camps for displaced populations in Monrovia, Liberia.
This evidence synthesis identifies, synthesizes and evaluates existing evidence of the impacts of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries. The research team developed theories of change for the WASH interventions under consideration, documenting the theoretical route from intervention activities to outputs, outcomes, and impacts. WASH interventions consistently reduce both the risk of disease and the risk of transmission in outbreak contexts.
Efficacy and effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions.
Container contamination as a possible source of a diarrhoea outbreak in Abou Shouk camp, Darfur province, Sudan
Diarrhoea is one of the five major causes of death in an emergency setting and one of the three main causes of death in children (Curtis and Cairncross, 2003). In June 2004, an outbreak of shigellosis was confirmed in Abou Shouk camp in the Northern Darfur province of Sudan. As water testing showed no contamination, it was assumed that post-collection contamination was happening. The decision was taken to launch a programme of mass disinfection of all water containers in order to break the contamination cycle.