Technical brief on water sanitation hygiene and wastewater management to prevent infections and reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance

Publication year
2020
Country

This technical brief provides information to inform water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and wastewater elements within multi-sectoral antimicrobial resistance (AMR) national action plans (NAPs). It includes a summary of evidence and the co-benefits rationale for action in each sector and presents a menu of actions for consideration and refinement in each country context.

Multisectoral approach for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

The emergence, transmission and distribution of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are determined by the pathogens, the vectors, the environment, the socio-economics and the health system. These factors exceed the capacity of ministries of health and the health sector and require the involvement of many other sectors and stakeholders. Consequently,

Environmental Transmission of SARS at Amoy Gardens

Publication year
2006
Emergency type
Country

Recent investigations into the March 2003 outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong have concluded that environmental factors played an important role in the transmission of the disease. These studies have focused on a particular outbreak event, the rapid spread of SARS throughout Amoy Gardens, a large, private apartment complex. They have demonstrated that, unlike a typical viral outbreak that is spread through person-to-person contact, the SARS virus in this case was spread primarily through the air.

Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g.

Menstration management: a neglected aspect of hygiene interventions

Publication year
2014
Country

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well-being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda.

WASH Interventions in Disease Outbreak Response: Evidence Synthesis.

Publication year
2017
Country

This evidence synthesis identifies, synthesizes and evaluates existing evidence of the impacts of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries. The research team developed theories of change for the WASH interventions under consideration, documenting the theoretical route from intervention activities to outputs, outcomes, and impacts. WASH interventions consistently reduce both the risk of disease and the risk of transmission in outbreak contexts.

Efficacy and effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Publication year
2018
Country

There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions.

Household Water Filters and Waterborne Epidemics: A Case Study from South Sudan

Publication year
2018
Country

In  2016,  the  Technical  Working  Group  (TWiG)  of  the  national  WaSH  Cluster  of  South  Sudan  focused  on  water  filter  technologies  in  order  to  assess  the  suitability  of  the  many  filter  products  available  for  application  in  WaSH  interventions  within  South  Sudan.  However,  the  TWiG  didn’t  analyse  past  disasters  and  water  borne  epidemics  together  with  endemic  diseases,  and  this  paper  wants  to  identify  if  there  are  and  which  are  the  criteria  and  information to  be  considered  to  choose  the  best  filter  (or  other  water  treatm