Hygiene programming during outbreaks: a qualitative case study of the humanitarian response during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Background: Hygiene promotion is a cornerstone of humanitarian response during infectious disease outbreaks. Despite this, we know little about how humanitarian organisations design, deliver or monitor hygiene programmes, or about what works to change hygiene behaviours in outbreak settings. This study describes humanitarian perspectives on changing behaviours in crises, through a case study of hygiene promotion during the 2014–2016 Liberian Ebola outbreak.

Distribution of household disinfection kits during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia: The MSF experience

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

During the initial phase of the 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia, all hospitals’ isolation capacities were overwhelmed by the sheer caseload. As a stop-gap measure to halt transmission, Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) distributed house- hold disinfection kits to those who were at high risk of EVD contamination. The kit contained chlorine and personal protective materials to be used for the care of a sick person or the handling of a dead body. This intervention was novel and controversial for MSF.

Community-Centered Responses to Ebola in Urban Liberia:The View from Below

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

Background. The West African Ebola epidemic has demonstrated that the existing range of medical and epidemiological responses to emerging disease outbreaks is insufficient, especially in post-conflict contexts with exceedingly poor healthcare infrastructures. In this context, community-based responses have proven vital for containing Ebola virus disease (EVD) and shifting the epidemic curve. Despite a surge in interest in local innovations that effectively contained the epidemic, the mechanisms for community-based response remain unclear.

WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Purpose. The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols. Design/Methodology/Approach.

Mainstreaming gender in WASH: lessons learned from Oxfam’s experience of Ebola

Publication year
2017
Emergency type

Within Oxfam, we continue to question how we could have better integrated gender equality in the Ebola response, and how to improve our gender mainstreaming in future emergencies. Why did gender mainstreaming in the Ebola response prove particularly challenging? How did the Ebola response differ from previous emergencies? What did we need to know to improve our response to the outbreak? Are there new ways in which we should approach gender mainstreaming? What lessons have we learned that we can carry forward in our work?

Community Engagement in WASH Emergencies: Understanding Barriers and Enablers Based on Action Research from Bangladesh and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

Publication year
2019
Emergency type

Engaging communities in humanitarian programming is key to ensuring their participation in decision-making that affects them as outlined by commitment 4 of the Core Humanitarian Standards.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in outbreak response: a synthesis of evidence

Publication year
2018
Country

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are key to reducing the burden of disease associated with outbreaks, and are commonly implemented in emergency response. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature by developing theory of change models, developing inclusion criteria, conducting the search, selecting evaluations for inclusion, assessing the quality of the evidence, and analysing the included evaluations.

Community-Led Total Sanitation, Open Defecation Free Status, and Ebola Virus Disease in Lofa County, Liberia

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

The  Ebola  virus  disease  (EVD)  epidemic  entered  Liberia  through  Lofa  County  in  February  2014  and  spread  to  two  health  districts  where  the nongovernmental  organization  Global  Communities  had  been  implementing  community-led  total  sanitation  (CLTS)  since  2012.  By  December 2014  the  county  had  928  Ebola  cases  (422  of  them  confirmed)  and  648  deaths.  Before  the  epidemic,  CLTS  was  triggered  in  155  communities,  and 98  communities  were  certified  as  Open  Defecation  Free  (ODF).  Using  mixed  quantitati

Open Defecation Status, Community-Led Total Sanitation and Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Voinjama and Kolahun Health Districts, Lofa County, Liberia (2014)

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

The Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IWASH) program  implemented Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in counties of Liberia to analyze the relationship between Open Defectation Free (ODF) status with the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). The purpose of the study was to validate informal claims that IWASH communities with ODF status experienced no cases of EVD and to identify which community-based EVD activities were most effective.