Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in outbreak response: a synthesis of evidence

Publication year
2018
Country

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are key to reducing the burden of disease associated with outbreaks, and are commonly implemented in emergency response. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature by developing theory of change models, developing inclusion criteria, conducting the search, selecting evaluations for inclusion, assessing the quality of the evidence, and analysing the included evaluations.

Technical brief Hepatitis E outbreak response

Publication year
2014
Emergency type
Country

This technical briefing note documents the current knowledge on Hepatitis E transmission routes and discusses the issues on the potential methods of response and prevention.

Menstration management: a neglected aspect of hygiene interventions

Publication year
2014
Country

Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well-being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda.

The WASH approach: fighting waterborne diseases in emergency situations

Publication year
2015
Country

Fecal-oral diseases can proliferate rapidly, sometimes to epidemic proportions, when people in crowded conditions lack clean water for hygiene and sanitation. Among the agents involved are at least 20 viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens that cause diseases such as cholera, bacillary dysentery, and the relatively recently discovered hepatitis E.

Learning from water treatment and hygiene interventions in response to a hepatitis E outbreak in an open setting in Chad

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

In September 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières responded to a hepatitis E (HEV) outbreak in Chad by implementing water treatment and hygiene interventions. To evaluate the coverage and use of these interventions, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the community. Our results showed that 99% of households interviewed had received a hygiene kit from us, aimed at improving water handling practice and personal hygiene and almost all respondents had heard messages about preventing jaundice and handwashing.

WASH Interventions in Disease Outbreak Response: Evidence Synthesis.

Publication year
2017
Country

This evidence synthesis identifies, synthesizes and evaluates existing evidence of the impacts of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries. The research team developed theories of change for the WASH interventions under consideration, documenting the theoretical route from intervention activities to outputs, outcomes, and impacts. WASH interventions consistently reduce both the risk of disease and the risk of transmission in outbreak contexts.

Efficacy and effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Publication year
2018
Country

There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions.