Humanitarians increasingly view market-based programming (MBP) and cash-transfer programming (CTP) as an effective response to address humanitarian needs of affected people. This is particularly reflected in the cash commitments made under the Grand Bargain of the World Humanitarian Summit. The humanitarian WASH sector is still in its early stages of integrating MBP/CTP as a standard practice.
Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for WASH market-based Humanitarian programming. User Guidelines for ICT Implementation.
Engagement with market actors is increasingly being recognised to be a key part of humanitarian programming as these actors are well positioned to provide services and distribute commodities to affected communities. At the same time, cash transfers are becoming more widely utilised to enable these same communities to access markets of goods and services that they urgently need during and after an emergency. To enable programmes to monitor their market based WASH programmes better a generic Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) framework has been developed.
This report is based on a desk-based review of secondary data, comprising published material as well as grey literature, supplemented with key informant interviews for programmes that lacked documentation. Section One summarises the current use of CBI in WASH programming in refugee contexts. Section Two summarises the best practices and lessons learned including challenges faced, drawing on evidence from the project examples found. Section Three provides recommendations and best practice guidance for use of CBI in refugee settings.
A participatory assessment on disaster risk reduction (DRR) was undertaken in GAZA governorate in 2011, OXFAM being the lead agency within the WASH cluster emergency response and preparedness in this area. Three vulnerable neighbourhoods (AL MALALHA, AL MOGRAGHA and AL ZARGA), were identified and an integrated approach has been implemented in the past 2 years, including WASH, Advocacy, Psycho-social support and DRR components.
This document provides guidance on how to use cash for latrines in camp settings. It highlights key lessons from different contexts and captures both cash specific recommendations and general guidance on latrine construction in one document. While much of the guidance emphasizes cash restricted to latrine construction, it also technically supports WASH officers on how to best accompany multi-purpose grants should they cover households latrines.
Recent investigations into the March 2003 outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong have concluded that environmental factors played an important role in the transmission of the disease. These studies have focused on a particular outbreak event, the rapid spread of SARS throughout Amoy Gardens, a large, private apartment complex. They have demonstrated that, unlike a typical viral outbreak that is spread through person-to-person contact, the SARS virus in this case was spread primarily through the air.
Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g.
Prevention and control of cholera with household and community water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions: A scoping review of current international guidelines
Introduction. Cholera remains a frequent cause of outbreaks globally, particularly in areas with inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Cholera is spread through faecaloral routes, and studies demonstrate that ingestion of Vibrio cholerae occurs from consuming contaminated food and water, contact with cholera cases and transmission from contaminated environmental point sources.