Assessing emotional motivators for handwashing with soap in emergencies: results from three Asian countries

Publication year
2019

This paper examines how emotional motivators can be used to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) among mothers affected by an emergency. The impact of using emotional motivators along with other behaviour determinants for behaviour change in development settings has been well documented; however there is limited evidence for the use of motives for HWWS in emergency contexts.

Simple improvements for emergency batch water treatment

Publication year
2007
Country

Batch water treatment consists of the intermittent use of settling tanks for water clarification, and is a common treatment practice during emergency relief efforts. This article presents simple improvements to coagulant dosing and water quality based on experience gained in the aftermath of the 2005 South Asian earthquake.

Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights - CLTS in Post-Emergency and Fragile States Settings

Publication year
2016

As  an  alternative,  CLTS  can  appear  fundamentally  mismatched  with  post-emergency  and  fragile  states  contexts:  the  core  principle  that  sanitation  hardware  should  not  be  subsidised  can  conflict  with  urgent  need,  and  with  what  some  will  view  as  a  contravention  to  the  right  of  human  assistance.  Affected  populations  have  often  lost  all  their  wealth,  and  are  traumatised,  physically  weak,  insecure,  and  at  the  point  of  greatest  dependency  on  the  aid  community.  Furthermore,  the  least  able  memb

"Appropriate Technologies" for Drinking Water Supply in Developing Countries

Publication year
2011
Emergency type

In  order  to  ensure  maximum  consumer  benefits  (e.g.  public  health,  livelihood),  drinking  water  supply  technologies  in  developing  countries  should  be  adopted  taking  into  consideration  locally  available  skills,  resources  as  well  as  cultural  and  environmental  settings.  This  paper  presents  case-studies  from  several  developing  countries  in  different  geographical  regions  of  water  supply  projects  utilizing  methods  ranging  from  biological  treatment  offered  slow  sand  filtration  systems  to  chemically-ass

Development of low cost household drinking water treatment system for the earthquake affected communities in Northern Pakistan

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

The devastating earthquake of 2005 severely damaged over 4000 water and sanitation schemes in northern Pakistan. The present study aimed at testing a low cost household sand filter (HSF) in treating low quality drinking water in disaster-hit areas of northern Pakistan. Two villages were randomly selected for practical demonstration of a low cost drinking water treatment system in earthquake affected areas. The on-site performance of HSF was monitored during the operational period.

Provision of sustainable sanitation in emergency situations: role of ecosan

Publication year
2006

This paper describes the potential of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and in particular of urine-diversion dehydrating (UDD) toilets, to provide sustainable excreta disposal in emergency situations in low-income countries. Three case studies of emergency sanitation were analysed: El Salvador (hurricane), Afghanistan (civil war) and Pakistan (earthquake). The analysis of these case studies has shown that the systems implemented in the long-term phase of the emergency were sometimes more sustainable than what was in place before the emergency occurred.

Access to emergency sanitation for Pakistani women: a case study in Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Publication year
2015
Country

This paper shares the experience of Action Against Hunger in Pakistan to look for solutions to help women address their individual needs for defecation and menstruation. Displaced and host families are supported by a traditional emergency water, sanitation and hygiene response, but cultural norms and availability of facilities were hiding the specific issues faced by women. The project combined discussion platforms for both women and men, awareness about sanitation risks, and provision of individual items for safer management of sanitary concerns.

Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting

Publication year
2015
Country

The performance and acceptability of the Nerox™ membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%.

Impact and adaptation to flood: A focus on water supply, sanitation and health problems of rural community in Bangladesh

Publication year
2010
Emergency type
Country

This paper intends to examine the impacts of flood on water supply and sanitation condition along with flood induced health problems in a rural community of Bangladesh. It also aims to explore a rural community’s adaptation approaches to flood. This research relied on intensive field investigation where 120 households from different villages were selected randomly for questionnaire survey. Sampling was taken from different villages which were the most badly flood affected areas during all previous floods of Bangladesh. Field investigation was conducted in January 2007.

Up scaling Rural Sanitation in Pakistan Post-2010 Flood Areas

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

In the aftermath of the unprecedented flooding in 2010 that devastated large areas of the country and directly affected over 20 million people, the incidence of water, sanitation and hygiene related diseases, including acute diarrhea, among the affected population was a major concern. In Pakistan, diarrhoea is the leading cause of mortality for children under 5 with 116,000 children perishing each year.