Purpose. The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols. Design/Methodology/Approach.
Within Oxfam, we continue to question how we could have better integrated gender equality in the Ebola response, and how to improve our gender mainstreaming in future emergencies. Why did gender mainstreaming in the Ebola response prove particularly challenging? How did the Ebola response differ from previous emergencies? What did we need to know to improve our response to the outbreak? Are there new ways in which we should approach gender mainstreaming? What lessons have we learned that we can carry forward in our work?
In 2014, ACF initiated an innovative approach for social mobilization activites that mobilizes the communities for impoving control of the risks of transmission of Ebola at the community level. The CLEME program was aimed at triggering the behavioral change needed by the communities to strengthen community resilience to the outbreak and prevent further resurgence by ensuring real and sustainable improvements. The CLEME approach implemented by ACF in the districts of Kambia and Moyamba revealed its efficiency in limiting and controlling the spread of the disease at the community level.
Effectiveness of chlorine dispensers in emergencies: case study results from Haiti, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal
Dispensers are a source-based water quality intervention with promising uptake results in development contexts. Dispenser programs include a tank of chlorine with a dosing valve that is installed next to a water source, a local Promoter who conducts community education and refills the Dispenser, and chlorine refills. In collaboration with response organizations, we assessed the effectiveness of Dispensers in four emergency situations.
Hygiene promotion in Ebola: embedding best practices for safe and dignified burials, the case of Freetown, Sierra Leone
Good hygiene practices are crucial for avoiding Ebola contamination during the transport and burial of deceased persons potentially infected by Ebola. In Freetown, Sierra Leone, Concern Worldwide worked with CDC (Centers for Disease Control) experts to define a quality assessment check list for the day-to-day follow-up of burial team workers.
This guide is a compilation of best practices and key lessons learned through Oxfam's experience of community engagement in the 2014-15 Ebola responses in Sierra Leone and Liberia. It provides ideas for all stages of an intervention, including the importance of assessment; principles and methods for community engagement; the challenges of scaling-up responses and changing communities' behaviours; and reflections on how to better advocate for communities.