Chlorination of drinking water in emergencies: a review of knowledge to develop recommendations for implementation and research needed

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

Clean water provision is a critical component of emergency response, and chlorination is widely used in emergencies to treat water. To provide responders with practical, evidencebased recommendations for implementing chlorination programmes and recommend areas for future research, we conducted a literature review of chlorination in emergencies, supplemented with a literature review on chlorination in general.

Setting priorities for humanitarian water, sanitation and hygiene research: a meeting report

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Recent systematic reviews have highlighted a paucity of rigorous evidence to guide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in humanitarian crises. In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps.

Learning from Oxfam's Tiger Worm Toilets projects

Publication year
2017

The world is witnessing the highest levels of forced human displacement on record, leading to people being housed in urban centres and camps. Generally the sanitation needs of these people are initially met by external agencies. The long-term costs of operating and maintaining traditional sanitation systems can be unviable when communities or local authorities take over their management. Therefore Oxfam has been trialling the Tiger Worm Toilet (TWT) in peri-urban and camp settings.

Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting

Publication year
2015
Country

The performance and acceptability of the Nerox™ membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%.

Excreta disposal in emergencies: Bag and Peepoo trials with internally displaced people in Port-au-Prince

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

After a series of earthquakes devastated Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 12 January 2010, safe excreta disposal became an urgent priority. To mainstream innovative approaches to sanitation within the realities of urban humanitarian response, Oxfam GB undertook a trial from April to May 2010, of standard bag and Peepoo excreta disposal systems in two IDP settlements. Trial results demonstrate that with proper collection and removal, both bags and Peepoos are viable excreta disposal options in emergencies.

Up-flow Clarifier for emergency water treatment

Publication year
2009
Emergency type
Country

The supply of adequate amounts of safe water for drinking and hygiene during natural disasters or armed conflict can be compromised and is one of the priorities in public health interventions to prevent the spread of disease. When surface waters are the only viable source, emergency water treatment kits are usually deployed by relief agencies for the supply of water. One option is the Oxfam Field Up‐flow ‘Clarifier’ Kit, which was designed to treat raw waters with high turbidities to adequate levels [i.e. <5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)] and at a relatively high yield (i.e.

Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion

Publication year
2013
Emergency type
Country

The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian  Innovation Fund (HIF), a program managed by Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance (ELRHA) in partnership with the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), and is a component of a larger initiative to identify and support innovations in emergency WASH. This paper gives an explanation of the background, methodology, and findings of the program.

Adherence to Point-of-Use Water Treatment over Short-Term Implementation: Parallel Crossover Trials of Flocculation Disinfection Sachets in Pakistan and Zambia

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

The health benefits of point-of-use (POU) water treatment can only be realized through high adherence: correct, consistent, and sustained use. We conducted parallel randomized, longitudinal crossover trials measuring short-term adherence to two single-use flocculant–disinfectant sachets in Pakistan and Zambia. In both trials, adherence declined sharply for both products over the eight week surveillance periods, with overall lower adherence to both products in Zambia. There was no significant difference in adherence between the two products.

Shedding Light on Humanitarian Sanitation

Publication year
2018
Country

Lighting should be provided for WASH facilities in Humanitarian contexts according to several standards. Evidence for this and the practical budget, operational and management responsibilities are less clear. A three-country research project looking at the impact of lighting on WASH use and Gender-Based Violence (GBV) required a multi-disciplinary approach, combining OXFAM's practical implementing expertise with WEDC's research-oriented approach. The research showed how much more is needed for safe sanitation than just building latrines.

Household Water Filters and Waterborne Epidemics: A Case Study from South Sudan

Publication year
2018
Country

In  2016,  the  Technical  Working  Group  (TWiG)  of  the  national  WaSH  Cluster  of  South  Sudan  focused  on  water  filter  technologies  in  order  to  assess  the  suitability  of  the  many  filter  products  available  for  application  in  WaSH  interventions  within  South  Sudan.  However,  the  TWiG  didn’t  analyse  past  disasters  and  water  borne  epidemics  together  with  endemic  diseases,  and  this  paper  wants  to  identify  if  there  are  and  which  are  the  criteria  and  information to  be  considered  to  choose  the  best  filter  (or  other  water  treatm