Child handwashing in an internally displaced persons camp in Northern Iraq: A qualitative multi-method exploration of motivational drivers and other handwashing determinants

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Background. Children in humanitarian situations are particularly vulnerable to diseases such as diar- rhoea. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce transmission but handwashing rates are often low and traditional interventions ineffective. To aid future intervention design, this study aims to understand the determinants of child handwashing and the key motivational drivers of children’s behaviour within a specific humanitarian setting.

Hygiene programming during outbreaks: a qualitative case study of the humanitarian response during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Background: Hygiene promotion is a cornerstone of humanitarian response during infectious disease outbreaks. Despite this, we know little about how humanitarian organisations design, deliver or monitor hygiene programmes, or about what works to change hygiene behaviours in outbreak settings. This study describes humanitarian perspectives on changing behaviours in crises, through a case study of hygiene promotion during the 2014–2016 Liberian Ebola outbreak.

Distribution of hygiene kits during a cholera outbreak in Kasaï-Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo: a process evaluation

Publication year
2020
Emergency type

Background: Cholera remains a leading cause of infectious disease outbreaks globally, and a major public health threat in complex emergencies. Hygiene kits distributed to cholera case-households have previously shown an effect in reducing cholera incidence and are recommended by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) for distribution to admitted patients and accompanying household members upon admission to health care facilities (HCFs).

Prevention and control of cholera with household and community water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions: A scoping review of current international guidelines

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Introduction. Cholera remains a frequent cause of outbreaks globally, particularly in areas with inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Cholera is spread through faecaloral routes, and studies demonstrate that ingestion of Vibrio cholerae occurs from consuming contaminated food and water, contact with cholera cases and transmission from contaminated environmental point sources.

Childs play: Harnessing play and curiosity motives to improve child handwashing in a humanitarian setting

Publication year
2019
Country

In humanitarian emergency settings there is need for low cost and rapidly deployable interventions to protect vulnerable children, in- and out-of-school, from diarrhoeal diseases. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce diarrhoea but interventions specifically targeting children's handwashing behaviour in humanitarian settings have not been tested. Traditional children's handwashing promotion interventions have been school-focused, resource-intensive and reliant on health-based messaging.

Could the Supertowel be used as an alternative hand cleaning product for emergencies? An acceptability and feasibility study in a refugee camp in Ethiopia

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background. Diarrhoeal diseases are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in humanitarian crises. Handwashing with soap may reduce diarrhoea by up to 47%, however, the circumstances associated with displacement make it challenging for crisis-affected populations to be able to wash their hands with soap. The Supertowel is an alternative hand-cleaning product, proven to be as efficacious as handwashing with soap. The Supertowel is a micro-fibre towel with an antimicrobial treatment.

Setting priorities for humanitarian water, sanitation and hygiene research: a meeting report

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Recent systematic reviews have highlighted a paucity of rigorous evidence to guide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in humanitarian crises. In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps.

The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks through evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera. This review highlights a focus on particular routes of transmission, and the limited number of interventions tested during outbreaks.

Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Methods in Acute Emergency Response: Case Study Results from Nepal, Indonesia, Kenya, and Haiti

Publication year
2012
Emergency type

Household water treatment (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination, have long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence of HWTS efficacy in the development context, effectiveness in the acute emergency context has not been rigorously assessed. We investigated HWTS effectiveness in response to four acute emergencies by surveying 1521 targeted households and testing stored water for free chlorine residual and fecal indicators.

Point-of-use water treatment in emergency response

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

Point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT), such as boiling or chlorine disinfection, has long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence that these and other PoUWT options improve household water microbiological quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease in the development context, it is unknown whether these results are generalizable to emergencies.