The world is witnessing the highest levels of forced human displacement on record, leading to people being housed in urban centres and camps. Generally the sanitation needs of these people are initially met by external agencies. The long-term costs of operating and maintaining traditional sanitation systems can be unviable when communities or local authorities take over their management. Therefore Oxfam has been trialling the Tiger Worm Toilet (TWT) in peri-urban and camp settings.
Innovative designs and approaches in sanitation when responding to challenging and complex humanitarian contexts in urban areas
As recent emergencies have shown, there are still significant challenges in the timely provision of safe sanitation in natural disasters or conflict situations. In urban emergencies or areas where it is impossible to dig simple pit latrines because of high water tables, hard rock, or lack of permission, it takes agencies considerable time to construct elevated latrines or alternative designs such as urine diversion toilets.
Working with Markets and the local Government while responding to the WASH needs of the Syrian crisis
This briefing paper focuses on WASH during the Syrian Refugee Crisis with a focus on responses in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria and how Oxfam's WASH responses have evolved overtime. Responses started with typical distribution assistance, to examining the opportunities stemming from the local market with a WASH lens while incorporating the challenges of working in Syria.
The emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) gap analysis project was funded by The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), a program managed by Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance (ELRHA) in partnership with the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), and is a component of a larger initiative to identify and support innovations in emergency WASH. This paper gives an explanation of the background, methodology, and findings of the program.
This factsheet addresses current developments, challenges, gaps and solutions in the planning and implementation fo sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruuction situations focusing on low and middle income countries. It is mainly intended for students, researchers, policy makers and practitioners.