Household spraying in cholera outbreaks: Insights from three exploratory, mixed-methods field effectiveness evaluations

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Household spraying is a commonly implemented, yet an under-researched, cholera response intervention where a response team sprays surfaces in cholera patients’ houses with chlorine. We conducted mixed-methods evaluations of three household spraying pro- grams in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti, including 18 key informant interviews, 14 household surveys and observations, and 418 surface samples collected before spray- ing, 30 minutes and 24 hours after spraying.

Effectiveness of water chlorination programs along the emergency transition- post-emergency continuum: Evaluations of bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination programs in Cox’s Bazar

Publication year
2020
Country

Supplying safe drinking water in humanitarian emergencies is critical, and source water chlorination is a commonly implemented intervention to provide safe water. We evaluated three different source water chlorination programs (bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination) in the ongoing humanitarian response in Cox’s Bazar refugee camps in Bangladesh. We used a mixed-methods research protocol including key informant interviews, water point observations, focus group discussions, household surveys, and water quality testing.

WASH Coordination in Humanitarian Response: Evidence Summary

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Providing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to emergency-affected populations is necessary for dignity and
disease control. Coordination, via the ‘cluster approach’, is key to WASH program success. We summarized the
outcomes and impacts of WASH cluster coordination using a mixed-methods approach, including literature review,
summary of UNICEF documents, and key informant interviews with experienced cluster staff. Across these three
data sets, consistent themes were identified, including: the cluster approach as a cost-effective ‘best-fit’ model that

Barriers and Facilitators to Chlorine Tablet Distribution and Use in Emergencies: A Qualitative Assessment

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Chlorine tablets are commonly distributed for household water treatment in emergencies. However, confirmed use after distribution ranges widely (from 7–87%), which raises concerns about chlorine tablet effectiveness, as measured by acceptance and appropriate use. To investigate chlorine tablet effectiveness, we conducted nine key informant interviews (KIIs) on tablet distribution in emergencies in general, five KIIs on chlorine taste and odor acceptance and rejection specifically, and a literature review on chlorine taste and odor concerns.

Acceptability, effectiveness, and fouling of PointOne membrane filters distributed in South Sudan

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

The Sawyer PointOne household hollow fiber membrane filter (PointOne) efficaciously removes microbiological indicators in the laboratory, and is increasingly considered for emergency response. To our knowledge, PointOne effectiveness in emergencies had not been evaluated. In South Sudan, 773 PointOnes were distributed.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.

Effectiveness of Multilevel Risk Management Emergency Response Activities To Ensure Free Chlorine Residual in Household Drinking Water in Southern Syria

Publication year
2018
Country

To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multilevel risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in outbreak response: a synthesis of evidence

Publication year
2018
Country

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are key to reducing the burden of disease associated with outbreaks, and are commonly implemented in emergency response. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature by developing theory of change models, developing inclusion criteria, conducting the search, selecting evaluations for inclusion, assessing the quality of the evidence, and analysing the included evaluations.

Chlorination of drinking water in emergencies: a review of knowledge to develop recommendations for implementation and research needed

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

Clean water provision is a critical component of emergency response, and chlorination is widely used in emergencies to treat water. To provide responders with practical, evidencebased recommendations for implementing chlorination programmes and recommend areas for future research, we conducted a literature review of chlorination in emergencies, supplemented with a literature review on chlorination in general.

Setting priorities for humanitarian water, sanitation and hygiene research: a meeting report

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Recent systematic reviews have highlighted a paucity of rigorous evidence to guide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in humanitarian crises. In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps.