Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment

Publication year
2008
Emergency type

Point-of-use  (POU)  water  treatment  with  sodium  hypochlorite  (NaOCl)  has been  proven  to  reduce  diarrheal  disease  in  developing  countries.  However, program  implementation  is  complicated  by  unclear  free  chlorine  residual guidelines  for  POU  water  treatment  and  difficulties  in  determining  appropriate dosage  recommendations.  The  author  presents  evidence  supporting  proposed criteria  for  household  water  treatment  for  free  chlorine  residuals  of  <  2.0  mg/L1  h  after  NaOCl  addition  and  >  0.2  mg/L  aft

Point-of-use water treatment in emergency response

Publication year
2012
Emergency type
Country

Point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT), such as boiling or chlorine disinfection, has long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence that these and other PoUWT options improve household water microbiological quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease in the development context, it is unknown whether these results are generalizable to emergencies.

Effectiveness of chlorine dispensers in emergencies: case study results from Haiti, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal

Publication year
2015

Dispensers are a source-based water quality intervention with promising uptake results in development contexts. Dispenser programs include a tank of chlorine with a dosing valve that is installed next to a water source, a local Promoter who conducts community education and refills the Dispenser, and chlorine refills. In collaboration with response organizations, we assessed the effectiveness of Dispensers in four emergency situations.

WASH Interventions in Disease Outbreak Response: Evidence Synthesis.

Publication year
2017
Country

This evidence synthesis identifies, synthesizes and evaluates existing evidence of the impacts of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries. The research team developed theories of change for the WASH interventions under consideration, documenting the theoretical route from intervention activities to outputs, outcomes, and impacts. WASH interventions consistently reduce both the risk of disease and the risk of transmission in outbreak contexts.

Household water treatment uptake during a public health response to a large typhoid fever outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe

Publication year
2014
Emergency type
Country

Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011–April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak.

Efficacy and effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Publication year
2018
Country

There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions.

Household Water Treatment and Cholera Control

Publication year
2018
Country

Water,  sanitation,  and  hygiene  are  one  part  of  a  cholera  control  strategy.  Household  water  treatment  (HWT)  in  particular  has  been  shown  to  improve  the  microbiological  quality  of  stored  water  and  reduce  the  disease  burden.  We  conducted  a  systematic  review  of  published  and  gray  literature  to  determine  the  outcomes  and  impacts  of  HWT  in  preventing  cholera  specifically.  Fourteen  manuscripts  with  18  evaluations  of  HWT  interventions  in  cholera  were  identified.  Overall,  a  moderate  quality  of  evidence  suggests  that  HWT  int