The Treguine refugee camp in Eastern Chad, is in a semi-arid terrain of hard, crystalline rock, where hard-rock boreholes proved inadequate. Fortunately, a significant thickness of saturated sands and gravels in a nearby wadi provided a sufficient quantity of water, and tube wells were constructed using a vibro-bailing technique in a few hours.
Following the Asian tsunami of 26 December 2004, the vital domestic fresh-water wells in the coastal zone were either scoured out of the ground entirely or filled with salt water, mud, debris and bodies. Emergency teams naturally exerted huge efforts in trying to restore intact wells, first clearing and then pumping them out. However, it soon became apparent little could be done to rehabilitate the wells in the short term due to the massive intrusion of saline groundwater as well as the fundamentally unsatisfactory nature of local water supply and drainage arrangements.