Assessment of water sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District Malawi

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions.

An evaluation of a bucket chlorination campaign during a cholera outbreak in rural Cameroon

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Bucket chlorination (where workers stationed at water sources manually add chlorine solution to recipients’ water containers during collection) is a common emergency response intervention with little evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing waterborne disease. We evaluated a bucket chlorination intervention implemented during a cholera outbreak by visiting 234 recipients’ homes across five intervention villages to conduct an unannounced survey and test stored household drinking water for free chlorine residual (FCR).

Sanitation practices and perceptions in Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya: Comparing the status quo with a novel service-based approach

Publication year
2017
Country

Globally, an estimated 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation. Unimproved sanitation increases the risk of morbidity and mortality, especially in protracted refugee situ- ations where sanitation is based on pit latrine use. Once the pit is full, waste remains in the pit, necessitating the construction of a new latrine, straining available land and funding resources. A viable, sustainable solution is needed.

Evaluation of pot-chlorination of wells during a cholera outbreak, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 2008

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

We evaluated the ability of UNICEF-designed pot-chlorinators to achieve recommended free residual chlorine (FRC) levels in well water in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, during a cholera outbreak. Thirty wells were randomly selected from six neighbourhoods. Pot-chlorinators – perforated plastic bottles filled with gravel, sand and calcium hypochlorite granules – were placed in each well.

Household water treatment uptake during a public health response to a large typhoid fever outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe

Publication year
2014
Emergency type
Country

Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011–April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak.

Assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District, Malawi

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions.