Adequate environmental health services are critical for human rights, health, and development, especially in the context of forced displacement. There are more than 70 million forcibly displaced persons worldwide, most in protracted situations, having been displaced for more than two years. Some live in camps or informal settlements, but most live in urban areas.
Monitoring & Evaluation Report
Hygiene programming during outbreaks: a qualitative case study of the humanitarian response during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia
Background: Hygiene promotion is a cornerstone of humanitarian response during infectious disease outbreaks. Despite this, we know little about how humanitarian organisations design, deliver or monitor hygiene programmes, or about what works to change hygiene behaviours in outbreak settings. This study describes humanitarian perspectives on changing behaviours in crises, through a case study of hygiene promotion during the 2014–2016 Liberian Ebola outbreak.
Innovative Strategies For Providing MenstruationSupportive Water, Sanitation And Hygiene (Wash) Facilities: Learning From Refugee Camps In Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh
Background: There is growing attention to addressing the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs of the over 21 million displaced adolescent girls and women globally. Current approaches to MHM-related humanitarian programming often prioritize the provision of menstrual materials and information. However, a critical component of an MHM response includes the construction and maintenance of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities, including more female-friendly toilets.
Distribution of household disinfection kits during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia: The MSF experience
During the initial phase of the 2014–2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Monrovia, Liberia, all hospitals’ isolation capacities were overwhelmed by the sheer caseload. As a stop-gap measure to halt transmission, Medecins sans Frontieres (MSF) distributed house- hold disinfection kits to those who were at high risk of EVD contamination. The kit contained chlorine and personal protective materials to be used for the care of a sick person or the handling of a dead body. This intervention was novel and controversial for MSF.
Improved chlorination and rapid water quality assessment in response to an outbreak of acute watery diarrhea in Somali Region, Ethiopia
Somali Region of Ethiopia has been affected by drought for several years. Drought conditions have led to food and water scarcity and a humanitarian crisis in the region. In January 2017, an outbreak of acute watery diarrhea (AWD) was declared in the region. AWD prevention and control activities include strengthening water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services. Access to safe drinking water is critical in preventing transmission of AWD and chlorine is an effective chemical to disinfect water supplies.
Effectiveness of water chlorination programs along the emergency transition- post-emergency continuum: Evaluations of bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination programs in Cox’s Bazar
Supplying safe drinking water in humanitarian emergencies is critical, and source water chlorination is a commonly implemented intervention to provide safe water. We evaluated three different source water chlorination programs (bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination) in the ongoing humanitarian response in Cox’s Bazar refugee camps in Bangladesh. We used a mixed-methods research protocol including key informant interviews, water point observations, focus group discussions, household surveys, and water quality testing.
Global Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Components in Rapid Response Mechanisms and Rapid Response Teams in Cholera Outbreak Settings
In recent outbreak settings, the use of rapid response teams (RRTs) to support the WASH sector has increased.
RRTs have been used as part of the response to cholera outbreaks in countries such as Haiti, Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with the scope of these teams varying widely. As the
presence of RRTs becomes more common in outbreak settings, it is important to better understand and document
the different types of models in use.
A participatory assessment on disaster risk reduction (DRR) was undertaken in GAZA governorate in 2011, OXFAM being the lead agency within the WASH cluster emergency response and preparedness in this area. Three vulnerable neighbourhoods (AL MALALHA, AL MOGRAGHA and AL ZARGA), were identified and an integrated approach has been implemented in the past 2 years, including WASH, Advocacy, Psycho-social support and DRR components.
Post-distribution Monitoring Report. Hygiene NFI Provision through Cash Assistance with E-Voucher Modality to Gure Shembola camp refugees
The project was implemented jointly by LWF and NCA. LWF was a lead agency as LWF was working in the camp and responsible for the WASH component on the accountability matrix. The project was funded by NMFA to address the whole population in the camp.
Recent investigations into the March 2003 outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong have concluded that environmental factors played an important role in the transmission of the disease. These studies have focused on a particular outbreak event, the rapid spread of SARS throughout Amoy Gardens, a large, private apartment complex. They have demonstrated that, unlike a typical viral outbreak that is spread through person-to-person contact, the SARS virus in this case was spread primarily through the air.