Protracted conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have left tens of millions of people in need of humanitarian and development assistance to have access to water. But the capacity of local water service providers (state-owned and private) to maintain adequate levels of services has decreased as conflicts and population movements across the region have continued, mainly towards urban areas.
Background: Refugees are at high risk for communicable diseases due to overcrowding and poor water, sanitation,
and hygiene conditions. Handwashing with soap removes pathogens from hands and reduces disease risk. A
hepatitis E outbreak in the refugee camps of Maban County, South Sudan in 2012 prompted increased hygiene
promotion and improved provision of soap, handwashing stations, and latrines. We conducted a study 1 year after
After the flood: an evaluation of in-home drinking water treatment with combined flocculent-disinfectant following Tropical Storm Jeanne — Gonaives, Haiti, 2004
Tropical Storm Jeanne struck Haiti in September 2004, causing widespread flooding which contaminated water sources, displaced thousands of families and killed approximately 2,800 people. Local leaders distributed PuR, a flocculent-disinfectant product for household water treatment, to affected populations. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, practices, and drinking water quality among a sample of PuRw recipients. We interviewed representatives of 100 households in three rural communities who received PuR and PuR-related education.
Description of the targeted WASH response strategy implemented during the cholera outbreak of 2017-2018 in Kinshasa, DRC
Background. Rapid control of cholera outbreaks is a significant challenge in overpopulated urban settings, and documented results on field interventions are scarce. During the 2017-2018 period, Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo, experienced a sharp increase in cholera cases that showed potential to quickly spread throughout the city. A novel targeted WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) strategy was implemented to quickly stem the cholera outbreak.
Pilot testing and evaluation of a toolkit for menstrual hygiene management in emergencies in three refugee camps in Northwest Tanzania
Displaced adolescent girls and women face many challenges managing their monthly menstrual flow with dignity
and comfort in various challenging settings around the world, such as refugee camps, informal settlements, and
while in transit across geographies as they flee disaster or conflict. Menstrual hygiene management requires easy
access to safe, private water and sanitation facilities, along with appropriate menstrual materials and supplies, discreet
For people affected by disaster, whether wars, earthquakes, or disease epidemics, conditions of life can change suddenly and in ways that require rapid adjustments. Often, adaptation includes taking greater care to prevent transmission of disease, in order to minimize the new threats to public health.
Objective To investigate the concentration of residual chlorine in drinking water supplies in refugee camps, South Sudan, March–April 2013. Methods For each of three refugee camps, we measured physical and chemical characteristics of water supplies at four points after distribution: (i) directly from tapstands; (ii) after collection; (iii) after transport to households; and (iv) after several hours of household storage.
Childs play: Harnessing play and curiosity motives to improve child handwashing in a humanitarian setting
In humanitarian emergency settings there is need for low cost and rapidly deployable interventions to protect vulnerable children, in- and out-of-school, from diarrhoeal diseases. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce diarrhoea but interventions specifically targeting children's handwashing behaviour in humanitarian settings have not been tested. Traditional children's handwashing promotion interventions have been school-focused, resource-intensive and reliant on health-based messaging.
Purpose. The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols. Design/Methodology/Approach.
The Sawyer PointOne household hollow fiber membrane filter (PointOne) efficaciously removes microbiological indicators in the laboratory, and is increasingly considered for emergency response. To our knowledge, PointOne effectiveness in emergencies had not been evaluated. In South Sudan, 773 PointOnes were distributed.