Environmental health conditions in the transitional stage of forcible displacement: A systematic scoping review

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

In 2019, 30,000 people were forced to leave their homes due to conflict, persecution, and natural disaster each day. Eighty-five percent of refugees live in developing countries, and they often face underfunded and inadequate environmental health services. Many displaced persons live in camps and other temporary settlements long after the displacement event occurs. However, there is little evidence on environmental health conditions in the transitional phase—defined by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as six months to two years after displacement.

Menstrual Disposal, Waste Management & Laundering in Emergencies: A Compedium

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Menstrual Disposal, Waste Management & Laundering in Emergencies: A Compendium aims to provide strategic guidance to support organizations and agencies seeking to rapidly address these critical and often overlooked aspects of an MHM response. The compendium complements
the MHM in Emergencies Toolkit, which identified a few key gaps in practice, namely: menstrual disposal, waste management and the laundering of reusable materials. 

Impact Evaluation of an SMS Campaign to Promote Household Chlorination in Rural Haiti

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Despite documented health benefits of household water treatment and storage (HWTS), achieving sustained use remains challenging. In prior evaluations of a long-term HWTS program in Haiti, multiple marketing interventions failed to increase use or had prohibitively high costs. Using mobile phones is a potentially cost-effective way to change HWTS behavior. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the impact of sending short-message service (SMS) messages to promote household chlorination in this program in Haiti.

Assessment of the hand hygiene status of internally displaced persons in Jos and environs, Nigeria

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are often predisposed to infectious diseases because of the temporary nature of their abode which usually does not have adequate water and hygiene facilities. A hundred (100) samples of hand-washed water taken under aseptic conditions from the hands of the IDPs prior to the emergence of COVID-19 were analyzed using standard bacteriological procedures to determine the total plate and coliform counts, identify the bacterial isolates, and to determine their sensitivity to an array of commonly used antibiotics.

Evaluating two novel hand washing hardware and software solutions in Kyaka II Refugee Settlement, Uganda

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Handwashing with soap is widely recognized as a key strategy for reducing the transmission of disease, particularly in emergency contexts, where overcrowding and poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions are common. Combining hygiene promotion with soap provision is accepted as one of the most cost-effective methods for disease prevention; however, this approach has not necessarily translated into a sustained increase in handwashing in emergency contexts.

Evidence-based chlorination targets for household water safety in humanitarian settings: Recommendations from a multi-site study in refugee camps in South Sudan, Jordan, and Rwanda

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

The current Sphere guideline for water chlorination in humanitarian emergencies fails to reliably ensure household water safety in refugee camps. We investigated post-distribution chlorine decay and household water safety in refugee camps in South Sudan, Jordan, and Rwanda between 2013-2015 with the goal of demonstrating an approach for generating site-specific and evidence-based chlorination targets that bet- ter ensure household water safety than the status quo Sphere guideline.

Household spraying in cholera outbreaks: Insights from three exploratory, mixed-methods field effectiveness evaluations

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Household spraying is a commonly implemented, yet an under-researched, cholera response intervention where a response team sprays surfaces in cholera patients’ houses with chlorine. We conducted mixed-methods evaluations of three household spraying pro- grams in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti, including 18 key informant interviews, 14 household surveys and observations, and 418 surface samples collected before spray- ing, 30 minutes and 24 hours after spraying.

Prevention of COVID-19 in Internally Displaced Persons Camps in War-Torn North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Mixed-Methods Study

Publication year
2020
Emergency type

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses a grave threat to refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). We examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to COVID-19 prevention among IDPs in war-torn Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Methods: Mixed-methods study with qualitative (focus group discussions, [FGDs]) and quantitative (52-item survey questionnaire) data collection and synthesis.