An evaluation of a bucket chlorination campaign during a cholera outbreak in rural Cameroon

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Bucket chlorination (where workers stationed at water sources manually add chlorine solution to recipients’ water containers during collection) is a common emergency response intervention with little evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing waterborne disease. We evaluated a bucket chlorination intervention implemented during a cholera outbreak by visiting 234 recipients’ homes across five intervention villages to conduct an unannounced survey and test stored household drinking water for free chlorine residual (FCR).

Evaluation of an Emergency Bulk Chlorination Project Targeting Drinking Water Vendors in Cholera-Affected Wards of Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, Tanzania

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

In August 2015, an outbreak of cholera was reported in Tanzania. In cholera-affected areas of urban Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, many households obtained drinking water from vendors, who sold water from tanks ranging in volume from 1,000 to 20,000 L. Water supplied by vendors was not adequately chlorinated. The Tanzanian Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children and the U.N.

The Case-Area Targeted Rapid Response Strategy to Control Cholera in Haiti: a Four-year Implementation Study

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a large-scale cholera epidemic. The Haitian government, UNICEF and other international partners launched an unprecedented nationwide alert-response strategy in July 2013. Coordinated NGOs recruited local rapid response mobile teams to conduct case-area targeted interventions (CATIs), including education sessions, household decontamination by chlorine spraying, and distribution of chlorine tablets.

Assessing emotional motivators for handwashing with soap in emergencies: results from three Asian countries

Publication year
2019

This paper examines how emotional motivators can be used to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) among mothers affected by an emergency. The impact of using emotional motivators along with other behaviour determinants for behaviour change in development settings has been well documented; however there is limited evidence for the use of motives for HWWS in emergency contexts.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.

Effectiveness of Multilevel Risk Management Emergency Response Activities To Ensure Free Chlorine Residual in Household Drinking Water in Southern Syria

Publication year
2018
Country

To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multilevel risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder.

Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment: Updated Recommendations

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Household  water  treatment  with  chlorine  can  improve  the  microbiological  quality  of  household  water and  reduce  diarrheal  disease.  We  conducted  laboratory  and field  studies  to  inform  chlorine  dosage recommendations.  In  the  laboratory,  reactors  of  varying  turbidity  (10–300  NTU)  and  total  organic carbon  (0–25  mg/L  addition)  were  created,  spiked  with Escherichia  coli,  and  dosed  with  3.75  mg/Ls odium  hypochlorite.  All  reactors  had>4  log  reduction  of E.  coli 24  hours  after  chlorine  addition

Community-Led Total Sanitation, Open Defecation Free Status, and Ebola Virus Disease in Lofa County, Liberia

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

The  Ebola  virus  disease  (EVD)  epidemic  entered  Liberia  through  Lofa  County  in  February  2014  and  spread  to  two  health  districts  where  the nongovernmental  organization  Global  Communities  had  been  implementing  community-led  total  sanitation  (CLTS)  since  2012.  By  December 2014  the  county  had  928  Ebola  cases  (422  of  them  confirmed)  and  648  deaths.  Before  the  epidemic,  CLTS  was  triggered  in  155  communities,  and 98  communities  were  certified  as  Open  Defecation  Free  (ODF).  Using  mixed  quantitati

Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment

Publication year
2008
Emergency type

Point-of-use  (POU)  water  treatment  with  sodium  hypochlorite  (NaOCl)  has been  proven  to  reduce  diarrheal  disease  in  developing  countries.  However, program  implementation  is  complicated  by  unclear  free  chlorine  residual guidelines  for  POU  water  treatment  and  difficulties  in  determining  appropriate dosage  recommendations.  The  author  presents  evidence  supporting  proposed criteria  for  household  water  treatment  for  free  chlorine  residuals  of  <  2.0  mg/L1  h  after  NaOCl  addition  and  >  0.2  mg/L  aft

Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting

Publication year
2015
Country

The performance and acceptability of the Nerox™ membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%.