WASH activities at two Ebola treatment units in Sierra Leone

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Purpose. The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols. Design/Methodology/Approach.

Acceptability, effectiveness, and fouling of PointOne membrane filters distributed in South Sudan

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

The Sawyer PointOne household hollow fiber membrane filter (PointOne) efficaciously removes microbiological indicators in the laboratory, and is increasingly considered for emergency response. To our knowledge, PointOne effectiveness in emergencies had not been evaluated. In South Sudan, 773 PointOnes were distributed.

Assessment of water sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District Malawi

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions.

An evaluation of a bucket chlorination campaign during a cholera outbreak in rural Cameroon

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Bucket chlorination (where workers stationed at water sources manually add chlorine solution to recipients’ water containers during collection) is a common emergency response intervention with little evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing waterborne disease. We evaluated a bucket chlorination intervention implemented during a cholera outbreak by visiting 234 recipients’ homes across five intervention villages to conduct an unannounced survey and test stored household drinking water for free chlorine residual (FCR).

Evaluation of an Emergency Bulk Chlorination Project Targeting Drinking Water Vendors in Cholera-Affected Wards of Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, Tanzania

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

In August 2015, an outbreak of cholera was reported in Tanzania. In cholera-affected areas of urban Dar es Salaam and Morogoro, many households obtained drinking water from vendors, who sold water from tanks ranging in volume from 1,000 to 20,000 L. Water supplied by vendors was not adequately chlorinated. The Tanzanian Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children and the U.N.

The Case-Area Targeted Rapid Response Strategy to Control Cholera in Haiti: a Four-year Implementation Study

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Background In October 2010, Haiti was struck by a large-scale cholera epidemic. The Haitian government, UNICEF and other international partners launched an unprecedented nationwide alert-response strategy in July 2013. Coordinated NGOs recruited local rapid response mobile teams to conduct case-area targeted interventions (CATIs), including education sessions, household decontamination by chlorine spraying, and distribution of chlorine tablets.

Assessing emotional motivators for handwashing with soap in emergencies: results from three Asian countries

Publication year
2019

This paper examines how emotional motivators can be used to promote handwashing with soap (HWWS) among mothers affected by an emergency. The impact of using emotional motivators along with other behaviour determinants for behaviour change in development settings has been well documented; however there is limited evidence for the use of motives for HWWS in emergency contexts.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.

Effectiveness of Multilevel Risk Management Emergency Response Activities To Ensure Free Chlorine Residual in Household Drinking Water in Southern Syria

Publication year
2018
Country

To provide safe drinking water and reduce the risk of disease, emergency responders in southern Syria are implementing a multilevel risk reduction strategy with the aim of ensuring free chlorine residual (FCR) in household drinking water. Responders implemented activities across the water chain (from chlorination station and well operators to water vendors to household members), including distribution of supplies for chlorination and training on chlorine use; activities varied by responder.

Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment: Updated Recommendations

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

Household  water  treatment  with  chlorine  can  improve  the  microbiological  quality  of  household  water and  reduce  diarrheal  disease.  We  conducted  laboratory  and field  studies  to  inform  chlorine  dosage recommendations.  In  the  laboratory,  reactors  of  varying  turbidity  (10–300  NTU)  and  total  organic carbon  (0–25  mg/L  addition)  were  created,  spiked  with Escherichia  coli,  and  dosed  with  3.75  mg/Ls odium  hypochlorite.  All  reactors  had>4  log  reduction  of E.  coli 24  hours  after  chlorine  addition