Inadequate drinking water quality from tanker trucks following a tsunami disaster, Aceh, Indonesia, June 2005

Publication year
2006
Emergency type
Country

A number of organizations engaged in tanker trucks to deliver water to populations affected by the 2005 tsunami in Indonesia. Many relief organizations assumed that the trucks provided safe water, even promoting tanker truck water as safe water; however, no surveillance systems were in place to monitor tank truck water quality. We surveyed 40 tanker trucks operated by 12 organizations. A total of 75 water samples were tested for residual free chlorine, and of these, 54 were also tested for E.coli.

Perceptions of health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012

Publication year
2015
Emergency type
Country

The international response to Haiti’s ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods.

Household water treatment uptake during a public health response to a large typhoid fever outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe

Publication year
2014
Emergency type
Country

Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011–April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak.

Assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District, Malawi

Publication year
2018
Emergency type
Country

On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions.

A pilot study of a portable hand washing station for recently displaced refugees during an acute emergency in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

Publication year
2015
Country

Diarrheal disease is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Displaced populations are especially vulnerable due to overcrowded camps and limited access to water and sanitation facilities, increasing the risk for outbreaks. Hand washing with soap is effective against disease transmission, and studies suggest access to a convenient hand washing station may be the key to increasing hand washing behavior. This pilot study evaluated the acceptability, durability and use of a novel hand washing bag (HWB) at the household level among Sudanese refugees immediately following an acute emergency.

Factors associated with E. coli contamination of household drinking water among tsunami and earthquake survivors, Indonesia

Publication year
2007
Emergency type
Country

The December 2004 tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia, destroyed drinking water infrastructure, placing over 500,000 displaced persons at increased risk of waterborne disease. In June 2005, we assessed the relationship of water handling behaviors to household water quality in three districts: Aceh Besar, Simeulue, and Nias. We surveyed 1,127 households from 21 communities and tested stored drinking water.