Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

Publication year
2015
Country

In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E.

Emergency toilets for the people affected by the Mount Sinabung eruptions

Publication year
2014
Country

Mount Sinabung erupted in September 2013, causing the mass evacuation of more than 30,000 people. Evacuees were placed in public buildings such as churches, mosques, schools and universities, as well as tent camps. Pour-flush toilets were provided by the government. However, the level of provision was generally inadequate. The continuity of water was a major concern, with the people relying on water trucks for the supply of water. Toilets were not properly maintained and rubbish was found around toilets, which could clog drainage channels.