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Mount Sinabung erupted in September 2013, causing the mass evacuation of more than 30,000 people. Evacuees were placed in public buildings such as churches, mosques, schools and universities, as well as tent camps. Pour-flush toilets were provided by the government. However, the level of provision was generally inadequate. The continuity of water was a major concern, with the people relying on water trucks for the supply of water. Toilets were not properly maintained and rubbish was found around toilets, which could clog drainage channels. Insufficient cleaning tools were provided. Coverage far exceeded generally accepted targets of twenty people per toilet. To address these issues, water supply should be closely monitored, additional toilets installed, adequate cleaning tools should be provided and people should be better organised to maintain toilets.

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