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This background paper focuses on supporting sustainable, equitable and resilient water services over the short and long term during protracted crises and for post-crisis reconstruction in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It was found that more evidence is needed on coordinating and phasing different modes of support to ensure sustainable and resilienct urban drinking water services, water resources need systematic treatment in preparations for reconstruction, and more attention needs to be paid to the political dimensions of water in protracted crises and reconstruction. Also, donors need more evidence and guidance on practices and modalities to support the water sector in protracted crises and reconstruction.

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