“Littered with Logos!”: An Investigation into the Relationship between Water Provision, Humanitarian Branding, Donor Accountability, and Self-Reliance in Ugandan Refugee Settlements

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

The branding of humanitarian assets and programme signage (often in English) is common practice in displacement contexts. Such visibility is a reminder of the special status of refugee spaces and a requirement imposed by donors. However, such branding, which forms part of the humanitarian organisations’ accountability to donors, raises profound issues in relation to the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) and the agenda of refugee self-reliance.

The Water Sanitation and Hygiene Perspective in Response to Cyclone Idai in Zimbabwe

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

The Zimbabwean government and a number of organisations responded in various ways to the devastation done by Cyclone Idai, which occurred in March 2019. The massive disaster destroyed water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure resulting in crippled access to these services. This study was done to investigate the impacts of the cyclone on WASH facilities to assess the WASH responses to the impacts of the cyclone and to interrogate how institutions collaborated and were coordinated during the responses to the disaster.

Evaluation of monitoring tools for WASH response in a cholera outbreak in northeast Nigeria

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene programs in cholera outbreaks is critical to improve humanitarian response. The objective of this research was to evaluate, and improve, WASH in cholera monitoring tools currently used in northeast Nigeria. We collected 723 forms from 2019 from three form types, combined them into one database of 980 activities, and stratified data by form type, response, implementing organization, activity, month/day, and geographical area. We conducted seven key informant interviews (KIIs) with monitoring tool users and decision-makers.

Rapid groundwater potential mapping in humanitarian contexts: improving borehole implementation in basement environments

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Emergency responses in humanitarian contexts require rapid set-up of water supply. Boreholes are often drilled where the needs are highest and not where hydrogeological conditions are most favourable. The Rapid Groundwater Potential Mapping (RGWPM) methodology was therefore developed as a practical tool to support borehole siting when time is critical, allowing strategic planning of geophysical campaigns.

Delivering Drinking Water by Truck in Humanitarian Contexts: Results from Mixed-Methods Evaluations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Bangladesh

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Water trucking is a commonly implemented, but severely under-researched, drinking water supply intervention in humanitarian response. To fill this research gap, we conducted three mixed-methods water trucking program evaluations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Bangladesh, including interviews, water point observations, household surveys, focus groups, and water quality testing. Results indicated that the programs had complex implementation structures involving multiple agencies and limited infrastructure to properly collect, treat, and deliver water.

Psychosocial Factors Mediating the Effect of the CHoBI7 Mobile Health Program on Handwashing With Soap and Household Stored Water Quality: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Household members of diarrhea patients are at higher risk of developing diarrheal diseases (>100 times for cholera) than the general population during the 7 days after the diarrhea patient is admitted at a health facility. There is growing evidence demonstrating that theory-driven water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are likely to yield greater behavior change than those based on health education alone.

Usability of rapid cholera detection device (OmniVis) for Water Quality Workers in Bangladesh: iterative convergent mixed methods study

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Background: Cholera poses a significant global health burden. In Bangladesh, cholera is endemic and causes more than 100,000 cases each year. Established environmental reservoirs leave millions at risk of infection through the consumption of contaminated water. The Global Task Force for Cholera Control has called for increased environmental surveillance to detect contaminated water sources prior to human infection in an effort to reduce cases and deaths.

Rethinking infrastructure rehabilitation: Conflict resilience of urban water and energy supply in the Middle East and South Sudan

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Protracted armed conflicts in the Middle East and Africa are heavily impacting the infrastructure of basic services such as water, energy, healthcare, and education. People adapt to these persistent conditions through self-organization, private sector-driven services and the reliance on international aid. In rehabilitating infrastructure damaged by conflicts, there is a rift between the perspectives of emergency aid and development cooperation.

Acceptability of urine diversion dry toilets in Dollo Ado refugee camp, Ethiopia

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Given the increasing frequency and duration of humanitarian emergencies worldwide, there is a need to identify a greater range of effective and contextually appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. Typical sanitation systems may be poorly suited for some of the conditions in which humanitarian emergencies can occur, such as in drought-prone regions. Urine-diversion dry toilets (UDDTs) are one potential alternative sanitation option which can be used in these conditions.

Innovative strategies for providing menstruation-supportive water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities: learning from refugee camps in Cox’s bazar, Bangladesh

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Background: There is growing attention to addressing the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) needs of the over 21 million displaced adolescent girls and women globally. Current approaches to MHM-related humanitarian programming often prioritize the provision of menstrual materials and information. However, a critical component of an MHM response includes the construction and maintenance of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities, including more female-friendly toilets.