As an alternative, CLTS can appear fundamentally mismatched with post-emergency and fragile states contexts: the core principle that sanitation hardware should not be subsidised can conflict with urgent need, and with what some will view as a contravention to the right of human assistance. Affected populations have often lost all their wealth, and are traumatised, physically weak, insecure, and at the point of greatest dependency on the aid community. Furthermore, the least able memb
Point-of-use (POU) water treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been proven to reduce diarrheal disease in developing countries. However, program implementation is complicated by unclear free chlorine residual guidelines for POU water treatment and difficulties in determining appropriate dosage recommendations. The author presents evidence supporting proposed criteria for household water treatment for free chlorine residuals of < 2.0 mg/L1 h after NaOCl addition and > 0.2 mg/L aft
In response to the recent cholera outbreak, a public health response targeted high-risk communities, including resource-poor communities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A survey covering knowledge and practices indicated that hygiene messages were received and induced behavior change, specifically related to water treatment practices. Self-reported household water treatment increased from 30.3% to 73.9%.
Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Methods in Acute Emergency Response: Case Study Results from Nepal, Indonesia, Kenya, and Haiti
Household water treatment (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination, have long been recommended in emergencies. While there is increasing evidence of HWTS efficacy in the development context, effectiveness in the acute emergency context has not been rigorously assessed. We investigated HWTS effectiveness in response to four acute emergencies by surveying 1521 targeted households and testing stored water for free chlorine residual and fecal indicators.
Innovative designs and approaches in sanitation when responding to challenging and complex humanitarian contexts in urban areas
As recent emergencies have shown, there are still significant challenges in the timely provision of safe sanitation in natural disasters or conflict situations. In urban emergencies or areas where it is impossible to dig simple pit latrines because of high water tables, hard rock, or lack of permission, it takes agencies considerable time to construct elevated latrines or alternative designs such as urine diversion toilets.
Effective Use of Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake
When water supplies are compromised during an emergency, responders often recommend household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as boiling or chlorination. We evaluated the near- and longer-term impact of chlorine and filter products distributed shortly after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. HWTS products were deemed as effective to use if they actually improved unsafe household drinking water to internationally accepted microbiological water quality standards.
Excreta disposal in emergencies: Bag and Peepoo trials with internally displaced people in Port-au-Prince
After a series of earthquakes devastated Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on 12 January 2010, safe excreta disposal became an urgent priority. To mainstream innovative approaches to sanitation within the realities of urban humanitarian response, Oxfam GB undertook a trial from April to May 2010, of standard bag and Peepoo excreta disposal systems in two IDP settlements. Trial results demonstrate that with proper collection and removal, both bags and Peepoos are viable excreta disposal options in emergencies.
Ann Kite Yo Pale (let them speak) Best Practice and Lessons Learned in Communication with Disaster Affected Communities: Haiti 2010
After the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, thousands of agencies, organizations, and individual people tried to find ways to help the people affected. However, there was also an outbreak of cholera in the town of St. Marc and the immediate response and evaluation by communication actors made an impact that was life or death. This study identifies best practice models in communication with affected populations that were implemented by humanitarians working in Haiti after the earthquake.
After the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, Oxfam carried out various activities to improve WASH facilities for communities and additional activities that targeted the cholera outbreak. The projects Oxfam implemented took into consideration gender discrimination and cultural practices and emphasized the differing needs of men and women with respect to WASH. Oxfam employed a gender-sensitive approach that recognized the privacy and hygiene needs of men and women and ensured that WASH facilities were as secure as possible.
Refugee populations often flee with very little belongings and lack appropriate hygiene infrastructure in an environment that is unfamiliar to them. For women and girls, this also means that it is more difficult for them to have menstrual hygiene management (MHM). MHM is important in emergencies because it reduces the risk of infection to girls and women, provides empowerment to engage in activities and survival during emergencies, and the provision of safe facilities reduces risk of sexual abuse.