Kabul and Monrovia, the respective capitals of Afghanistan and Liberia, have recently emerged from long-lasting armed conflicts. In both cities, a large number of organisations took part in emergency water supply provision and later in the rehabilitation of water systems. Based on field research, this paper establishes a parallel between the operations carried out in the two settings, highlighting similarities and analysing the two most common strategies.
As an alternative, CLTS can appear fundamentally mismatched with post-emergency and fragile states contexts: the core principle that sanitation hardware should not be subsidised can conflict with urgent need, and with what some will view as a contravention to the right of human assistance. Affected populations have often lost all their wealth, and are traumatised, physically weak, insecure, and at the point of greatest dependency on the aid community. Furthermore, the least able memb
This paper describes the potential of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and in particular of urine-diversion dehydrating (UDD) toilets, to provide sustainable excreta disposal in emergency situations in low-income countries. Three case studies of emergency sanitation were analysed: El Salvador (hurricane), Afghanistan (civil war) and Pakistan (earthquake). The analysis of these case studies has shown that the systems implemented in the long-term phase of the emergency were sometimes more sustainable than what was in place before the emergency occurred.
Learning and recommendations on the use of CLTS in emergency and post conflict/post-emergency situations
This forum includes an update on learning and practice in relation to health and hygiene promotion, and community involvement in emergency programs with a focus on the use of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). It was found that the use of CLTS in emergencies has not focused on the type or phase of an emergency response, thus making them not as effective.
The Potential of Ecosan to Provide Sustainable Sanitation in Emergency Situations and to achieve “quick wins” in MDGs
After emergency situations, aid agencies tend to implement sanitation systems that exhibit good principles for managing human excreta, but can result in groundwater pollution, inconvenience for women and children, or problems with not having sufficient space available to build or rebuild when full. Ecosan is an alternative approach to conventional sanitation systems that promotes ecological and economical wastewater and waste management. Ecosan is based on the principles of containment, sanitation, and reuse.
This article presents the experience of using the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach in a recent programme in Somalia and explains some of the adaptations that were necessary to adjust to the specifics of a fragile and insecure context. The article goes on to explore the applicability of CLTS in fragile and insecure contexts more generally, using examples from South Sudan, Chad, and Afghanistan, and argues that in some ways it is an ideal approach for overcoming some of the challenges of working in these areas.