Recent systematic reviews have highlighted a paucity of rigorous evidence to guide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in humanitarian crises. In June 2017, the Research for Health in Humanitarian Crises (R2HC) programme of Elrha, convened a meeting of representatives from international response agencies, research institutions and donor organisations active in the field of humanitarian WASH to identify research priorities, discuss challenges conducting research and to establish next steps.
Batch water treatment consists of the intermittent use of settling tanks for water clarification, and is a common treatment practice during emergency relief efforts. This article presents simple improvements to coagulant dosing and water quality based on experience gained in the aftermath of the 2005 South Asian earthquake.
In order to ensure maximum consumer benefits (e.g. public health, livelihood), drinking water supply technologies in developing countries should be adopted taking into consideration locally available skills, resources as well as cultural and environmental settings. This paper presents case-studies from several developing countries in different geographical regions of water supply projects utilizing methods ranging from biological treatment offered slow sand filtration systems to chemically-ass
Emergency water treatment approaches relying on coagulation vary from centralised modular and portable ‘‘kits’’ to ‘‘point-of-use’’ or ‘‘household’’ interventions. Typical coagulation practice in emergencies is reviewed in view of field constraints (e.g.equipment and resources) and contrasted with underlying theory and conventional water treatment procedures. Examples of coagulation in emergencies are also presented based on documented field experiences alongside the discussion of other relevan
The supply of adequate amounts of safe water for drinking and hygiene during natural disasters or armed conflict can be compromised and is one of the priorities in public health interventions to prevent the spread of disease. When surface waters are the only viable source, emergency water treatment kits are usually deployed by relief agencies for the supply of water. One option is the Oxfam Field Up‐flow ‘Clarifier’ Kit, which was designed to treat raw waters with high turbidities to adequate levels [i.e. <5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)] and at a relatively high yield (i.e.