Where large groups of people are displaced either by conflict or by natural disaster and they are likely to stay in a location for periods in excess of a few weeks, there will be a need to establish and probably subsequently upgrade a centralised water treatment system. This guideline focuses on community level needs where “bulk water treatment” is required. It is devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply where mass displacement of people has occurred, e.g. as found in refugee camps and relief centres.
Handwashing is a critical practice that is promoted to protect public health, especially during outbreaks of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Handwashing stations are used both in emergencies and in other contexts to provide locations for people to wash hands with soap. In refugee camps and internal displacement centres, units for handwashing should be installed both at households and next to latrines and in communal areas, such as in markets, schools, and health centres. This document lists a range of options for handwashing stations.
Evaluating two novel hand washing hardware and software solutions in Kyaka II Refugee Settlement, Uganda
Handwashing with soap is widely recognized as a key strategy for reducing the transmission of disease, particularly in emergency contexts, where overcrowding and poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions are common. Combining hygiene promotion with soap provision is accepted as one of the most cost-effective methods for disease prevention; however, this approach has not necessarily translated into a sustained increase in handwashing in emergency contexts.
To date, over 900 TWT's (Tiger Worm Toilets) have been built and trialled across four countries by Oxfam in a range of settings including urban, peri-urban and camps. Trials have also been run by other organisations as well as installations by the private sector. They have been proven to work in both household and shared communal camp settings. However, the learnings show that TWTs are not the solution to all sanitation problems. This manual aims to present considerations for TWTs and provide a guidance for implementation based on globally relevant learnings from Myanmar.
UNHCR estimates that the average time spent by a refugee in a camp is 10 years, while the average refugee camp remains for 26 years. WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) is a crucial component of humanitarian response and longer-term recovery. Humanitarian agencies and host governments face many challenges in protracted situations and complex long-term humanitarian crises. One key issue is how water supplies should be managed in the long term. Who is best placed to operate and manage WASH services and which delivery model is the most viable?
This research paper explores the different challenges related to menstrual hygiene faced by Syrian refugee women residing in Informal Tented Settlements (ITSs) in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. The piece first looks at women’s distinct lived experiences and practices, focusing on products, safety and health, and delving into the implications of those challenges on paid work and domestic responsibilities and care work.
Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for WASH market-based Humanitarian programming. User Guidelines for ICT Implementation.
Engagement with market actors is increasingly being recognised to be a key part of humanitarian programming as these actors are well positioned to provide services and distribute commodities to affected communities. At the same time, cash transfers are becoming more widely utilised to enable these same communities to access markets of goods and services that they urgently need during and after an emergency. To enable programmes to monitor their market based WASH programmes better a generic Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) framework has been developed.
A participatory assessment on disaster risk reduction (DRR) was undertaken in GAZA governorate in 2011, OXFAM being the lead agency within the WASH cluster emergency response and preparedness in this area. Three vulnerable neighbourhoods (AL MALALHA, AL MOGRAGHA and AL ZARGA), were identified and an integrated approach has been implemented in the past 2 years, including WASH, Advocacy, Psycho-social support and DRR components.
In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Oxfam’s Public Health Promotion team used a voucher programme to provide beneficiaries with essential hygiene items through local shops. The voucher system was chosen so that beneficiaries could access hygiene items in a normal and dignified way, and in order to pilot an innovative approach to dealing with the challenges of in-kind distributions in an urban setting.
The Lifesaver Cube (‘the Cube’) is a household water filter developed in collaboration with Oxfam. Dirty water is stored inside the Cube, which resembles a tough five litre jerry can. The small pump on the cap is used to increase the pressure inside the Cube, forcing water through an internal membrane filter which removes bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.