This document has been prepared to share the 10-year experience, from 2010 to 2020, that UNICEF staff and their partners have accumulated in fighting cholera in Haiti. This guidance document has the objective of providing WASH, Health, Communication for Development and Emergency sectors staff with insights and tools in dealing with a wide-scale cholera epidemic. Although the case of Haiti is particular in many respects, the implemented strategy and lessons learnt from the alert-response approach will be applicable in a number of contexts.
In 2020, the WASH team in UNICEF Lebanon issued a nationwide feasibility and monitoring study for the use of cash as a modality to meet certain WASH needs within informally tented settlements (ISs). Under this initiative, UNICEF implemented a pilot project to evaluate and investigate the appropriateness of scaling up cash-based programming and eventually shifting from the in-kind/voucher-based modality of support in 200,000 ISs.
This operational guideline authored by UNICEF WASH Gregory Bulit and Monica Ramos, supports the establishment of case area targeted interventions (CATI) with dedicated community outbreak response teams (CORT) in a country affected by cholera. Annexes include tools to set-up, implement, monitor and evaluate the team responses. Inquiries: Greg Bulit and Laure Anquez.
Global Review of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Components in Rapid Response Mechanisms and Rapid Response Teams in Cholera Outbreak Settings
In recent outbreak settings, the use of rapid response teams (RRTs) to support the WASH sector has increased.
RRTs have been used as part of the response to cholera outbreaks in countries such as Haiti, Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, with the scope of these teams varying widely. As the
presence of RRTs becomes more common in outbreak settings, it is important to better understand and document
the different types of models in use.
Effective gender-responsive programming in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector can contribute to progress towards gender equality and important WASH results. This document outlines essential elements that WASH practitioners should take into account at all points in the programme cycle in order to enhance a gender-responsive approach to their work.
The UNICEF Cholera Toolkit provides UNICEF staff and partners with practical resources to implement an integrated approach to cholera prevention, preparedness and response. It addresses water, hygiene and sanitation, health and communication for development (C4D) as well as specific content linked to education, nutrition, child protection and other relevant sectors.
In the aftermath of the unprecedented flooding in 2010 that devastated large areas of the country and directly affected over 20 million people, the incidence of water, sanitation and hygiene related diseases, including acute diarrhea, among the affected population was a major concern. In Pakistan, diarrhoea is the leading cause of mortality for children under 5 with 116,000 children perishing each year.
The purpose of this compendium is to collate knowledge on emergency interventions that deliver WASH-related health benefits while minimizing disruption to education opportunities. Learners and the learning environment are affected by a range of scenarios during an emergency. The compendium describes preparedness activities and responses to past emergencies. The compendium also describes the planning process for a potential intervention and different WASH in emergency scenarios.
The water supply of the rural coastal areas in Sri Lanka is provided by private open dug wells, most of which have been flooded by sea water during the tsunami. The salinity of the well affected proved not to be the main problem, and early attempts to rehabilitate wells failed. Salinity reduction can only be achieved naturally, through the recharge of the aquifer. The true challenge for rural water supply is represented by bacteriological and agricultural contamination and sustainability of handpumps.
Refugee populations often flee with very little belongings and lack appropriate hygiene infrastructure in an environment that is unfamiliar to them. For women and girls, this also means that it is more difficult for them to have menstrual hygiene management (MHM). MHM is important in emergencies because it reduces the risk of infection to girls and women, provides empowerment to engage in activities and survival during emergencies, and the provision of safe facilities reduces risk of sexual abuse.