Rural Sanitation Programming in Challenging Contexts: A desk based review

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Of the two billion people worldwide lacking access to at least basic sanitation, seven out of ten live in rural areas (JMP 2019). Progress has been made on increasing rural sanitation and access levels are rising, but challenges remain in reaching the ‘last mile’ or some 10 to 20 per cent of the population (Apanga et al. 2020; UNICEF 2015).

Evaluating two novel hand washing hardware and software solutions in Kyaka II Refugee Settlement, Uganda

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Handwashing with soap is widely recognized as a key strategy for reducing the transmission of disease, particularly in emergency contexts, where overcrowding and poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions are common. Combining hygiene promotion with soap provision is accepted as one of the most cost-effective methods for disease prevention; however, this approach has not necessarily translated into a sustained increase in handwashing in emergency contexts.

Surface Water Treatment in Palorinya Refugee Settlement, Uganda

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

MSF has intervened recently in several contexts where large-scale surface water treatment has been a significant feature of the WatSan response – Gambella (Ethiopia), Central African Republic (CAR) and Bentiu (South Sudan) are some examples. The impact of these interventions has been significant. Surface water treatment, if feasible, has better potential for covering the needs of a population in the immediate phase of a response than groundwater. It is simpler, cheaper and, usually, does not involve contracting services beyond basic construction activities. 

Water Supply in Protracted Humanitarian Crises

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

UNHCR estimates that the average time spent by a refugee in a camp is 10 years, while the average refugee camp remains for 26 years. WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) is a crucial component of humanitarian response and longer-term recovery. Humanitarian agencies and host governments face many challenges in protracted situations and complex long-term humanitarian crises. One key issue is how water supplies should be managed in the long term. Who is best placed to operate and manage WASH services and which delivery model is the most viable?

Menstrual Hygiene Management Among Syrian Refugee Women in the Bekaa

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

This research paper explores the different challenges related to menstrual hygiene faced by Syrian refugee women residing in Informal Tented Settlements (ITSs) in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. The piece first looks at women’s distinct lived experiences and practices, focusing on products, safety and health, and delving into the implications of those challenges on paid work and domestic responsibilities and care work.

WASH ePaper - Market Based Programming in Humanitarian WASH

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

Humanitarians increasingly view market-based programming (MBP) and cash-transfer programming (CTP) as an effective response to address humanitarian needs of affected people. This is particularly reflected in the cash commitments made under the Grand Bargain of the World Humanitarian Summit. The humanitarian WASH sector is still in its early stages of integrating MBP/CTP as a standard practice.

Water Vouchers Evaluation Report Gaza

Publication year
2013
Emergency type
Country

A participatory assessment on disaster risk reduction (DRR) was undertaken in GAZA governorate in 2011, OXFAM being the lead agency within the WASH cluster emergency response and preparedness in this area. Three vulnerable neighbourhoods (AL MALALHA, AL MOGRAGHA and AL ZARGA), were identified and an integrated approach has been implemented in the past 2 years, including WASH, Advocacy, Psycho-social support and DRR components.

Post-distribution Monitoring Report. Hygiene NFI Provision through Cash Assistance with E-Voucher Modality to Gure Shembola camp refugees

Publication year
2018
Country

The project was implemented jointly by LWF and NCA. LWF was a lead agency as LWF was working in the camp and responsible for the WASH component on the accountability matrix. The project was funded by NMFA to address the whole population in the camp.

Shop vouchers for Hygiene Kits in Port-au-Prince, Haiti

Publication year
2011
Emergency type
Country

In the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Oxfam’s Public Health Promotion team used a voucher programme to provide beneficiaries with essential hygiene items through local shops. The voucher system was chosen so that beneficiaries could access hygiene items in a normal and dignified way, and in order to pilot an innovative approach to dealing with the challenges of in-kind distributions in an urban setting.