To date, over 900 TWT's (Tiger Worm Toilets) have been built and trialled across four countries by Oxfam in a range of settings including urban, peri-urban and camps. Trials have also been run by other organisations as well as installations by the private sector. They have been proven to work in both household and shared communal camp settings. However, the learnings show that TWTs are not the solution to all sanitation problems. This manual aims to present considerations for TWTs and provide a guidance for implementation based on globally relevant learnings from Myanmar.
Understanding the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing displaced girls and women: findings from qualitative assessments in Myanmar and Lebanon
There is a significant gap in empirical evidence on the menstrual hygiene management (MHM) challenges faced by adolescent girls and women in emergency contexts, and on appropriate humanitarian response approaches to meet their needs in diverse emergency contexts. To begin filling the gap in the evidence, we conducted a study in two diverse contexts (Myanmar and Lebanon), exploring the MHM barriers facing girls and women, and the various relevant sectoral responses being conducted (e.g.
The world is witnessing the highest levels of forced human displacement on record, leading to people being housed in urban centres and camps. Generally the sanitation needs of these people are initially met by external agencies. The long-term costs of operating and maintaining traditional sanitation systems can be unviable when communities or local authorities take over their management. Therefore Oxfam has been trialling the Tiger Worm Toilet (TWT) in peri-urban and camp settings.
The provision of safe water in adequate quantities is a basic necessity in emergencies to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, and more specifically, the spread of waterborne diseases. The reliance of pre-treatment steps and bulk chlorination have been the main ways of achieving water quality standards, but here are still knowledge gaps in the field of practice.