Gaps in WASH in Humanitarian Response: 2021 Update

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

With humanitarian emergencies occurring at increasing rates and affecting a growing number of people, evidence-based strategies and new solutions – including in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) – are vital to ensure people have their essential needs met, can live in dignity and are protected from WASH-related diseases.

‘Gaps in WASH in Humanitarian Response: 2021 Update’ reveals the most pressing WASH challenges facing communities affected by crises worldwide.

Evaluation of monitoring tools for WASH response in a cholera outbreak in northeast Nigeria

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene programs in cholera outbreaks is critical to improve humanitarian response. The objective of this research was to evaluate, and improve, WASH in cholera monitoring tools currently used in northeast Nigeria. We collected 723 forms from 2019 from three form types, combined them into one database of 980 activities, and stratified data by form type, response, implementing organization, activity, month/day, and geographical area. We conducted seven key informant interviews (KIIs) with monitoring tool users and decision-makers.

Delivering Drinking Water by Truck in Humanitarian Contexts: Results from Mixed-Methods Evaluations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Bangladesh

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Water trucking is a commonly implemented, but severely under-researched, drinking water supply intervention in humanitarian response. To fill this research gap, we conducted three mixed-methods water trucking program evaluations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Bangladesh, including interviews, water point observations, household surveys, focus groups, and water quality testing. Results indicated that the programs had complex implementation structures involving multiple agencies and limited infrastructure to properly collect, treat, and deliver water.

Impact Evaluation of an SMS Campaign to Promote Household Chlorination in Rural Haiti

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Despite documented health benefits of household water treatment and storage (HWTS), achieving sustained use remains challenging. In prior evaluations of a long-term HWTS program in Haiti, multiple marketing interventions failed to increase use or had prohibitively high costs. Using mobile phones is a potentially cost-effective way to change HWTS behavior. We conducted a randomized experiment to evaluate the impact of sending short-message service (SMS) messages to promote household chlorination in this program in Haiti.

Household spraying in cholera outbreaks: Insights from three exploratory, mixed-methods field effectiveness evaluations

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

Household spraying is a commonly implemented, yet an under-researched, cholera response intervention where a response team sprays surfaces in cholera patients’ houses with chlorine. We conducted mixed-methods evaluations of three household spraying pro- grams in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Haiti, including 18 key informant interviews, 14 household surveys and observations, and 418 surface samples collected before spray- ing, 30 minutes and 24 hours after spraying.

Effectiveness of water chlorination programs along the emergency transition- post-emergency continuum: Evaluations of bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination programs in Cox’s Bazar

Publication year
2020
Country

Supplying safe drinking water in humanitarian emergencies is critical, and source water chlorination is a commonly implemented intervention to provide safe water. We evaluated three different source water chlorination programs (bucket, in-line, and piped water chlorination) in the ongoing humanitarian response in Cox’s Bazar refugee camps in Bangladesh. We used a mixed-methods research protocol including key informant interviews, water point observations, focus group discussions, household surveys, and water quality testing.

WASH Coordination in Humanitarian Response: Evidence Summary

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Providing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to emergency-affected populations is necessary for dignity and
disease control. Coordination, via the ‘cluster approach’, is key to WASH program success. We summarized the
outcomes and impacts of WASH cluster coordination using a mixed-methods approach, including literature review,
summary of UNICEF documents, and key informant interviews with experienced cluster staff. Across these three
data sets, consistent themes were identified, including: the cluster approach as a cost-effective ‘best-fit’ model that

Barriers and Facilitators to Chlorine Tablet Distribution and Use in Emergencies: A Qualitative Assessment

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

Chlorine tablets are commonly distributed for household water treatment in emergencies. However, confirmed use after distribution ranges widely (from 7–87%), which raises concerns about chlorine tablet effectiveness, as measured by acceptance and appropriate use. To investigate chlorine tablet effectiveness, we conducted nine key informant interviews (KIIs) on tablet distribution in emergencies in general, five KIIs on chlorine taste and odor acceptance and rejection specifically, and a literature review on chlorine taste and odor concerns.

Acceptability, effectiveness, and fouling of PointOne membrane filters distributed in South Sudan

Publication year
2019
Emergency type
Country

The Sawyer PointOne household hollow fiber membrane filter (PointOne) efficaciously removes microbiological indicators in the laboratory, and is increasingly considered for emergency response. To our knowledge, PointOne effectiveness in emergencies had not been evaluated. In South Sudan, 773 PointOnes were distributed.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response

Publication year
2018
Country

Background. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context.