Recent investigations into the March 2003 outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong have concluded that environmental factors played an important role in the transmission of the disease. These studies have focused on a particular outbreak event, the rapid spread of SARS throughout Amoy Gardens, a large, private apartment complex. They have demonstrated that, unlike a typical viral outbreak that is spread through person-to-person contact, the SARS virus in this case was spread primarily through the air.
Monitoring & Evaluation Report
Introduction A cholera epidemic began in Haiti over 8 years ago, prompting numerous, largely quantitative research studies. Assessments of local ‘knowledge, attitudes and practices’ relevant for cholera control have relied primarily on cross-sectional surveys. The voices of affected Haitians have rarely been elevated in the scientific literature on the topic.
The Lifesaver Cube (‘the Cube’) is a household water filter developed in collaboration with Oxfam. Dirty water is stored inside the Cube, which resembles a tough five litre jerry can. The small pump on the cap is used to increase the pressure inside the Cube, forcing water through an internal membrane filter which removes bacteria, viruses and other pathogens.
Programmatic implications for promotionof handwashing behavior in an internally displaced persons camp in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Background: Diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) account for 30% of deaths among children displaced due to humanitarian emergencies. A wealth of evidence demonstrates that handwashing with soap prevents both diarrhea and ARI.
This case study explores IFRC’s innovation process in developing and testing a comprehensive relief item to meet more effectively and appropriately the menstrual hygiene needs of women and girls in emergencies. To address the multifaceted nature of menstrual hygiene management (MHM), grantees used a kitbased approach, including appropriate sanitary and hygiene items along with training for staff and information for beneficiaries.
Kabul and Monrovia, the respective capitals of Afghanistan and Liberia, have recently emerged from long-lasting armed conflicts. In both cities, a large number of organisations took part in emergency water supply provision and later in the rehabilitation of water systems. Based on field research, this paper establishes a parallel between the operations carried out in the two settings, highlighting similarities and analysing the two most common strategies.
Formative research for the design of a scalable water, sanitation, and hygiene mobile health program: CHoBI7 mobile health program
Background. The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility.
Background. The West African Ebola epidemic has demonstrated that the existing range of medical and epidemiological responses to emerging disease outbreaks is insufficient, especially in post-conflict contexts with exceedingly poor healthcare infrastructures. In this context, community-based responses have proven vital for containing Ebola virus disease (EVD) and shifting the epidemic curve. Despite a surge in interest in local innovations that effectively contained the epidemic, the mechanisms for community-based response remain unclear.
Water, sanitation and hygiene partners collaborating to combat severe cholera outbreaks during the State of Emergency in Zimbabwe
This paper aims to understand the value of collaboration in a ‘state of emergency’ situation, featuring the case of the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in Zimbabwe over the period 2008–2012. During this period, a group of stakeholders engaged in a structured collaboration, called the WASH cluster. This initiative was taken to respond to severe and frequent cholera outbreaks.