This document has been prepared to share the 10-year experience, from 2010 to 2020, that UNICEF staff and their partners have accumulated in fighting cholera in Haiti. This guidance document has the objective of providing WASH, Health, Communication for Development and Emergency sectors staff with insights and tools in dealing with a wide-scale cholera epidemic. Although the case of Haiti is particular in many respects, the implemented strategy and lessons learnt from the alert-response approach will be applicable in a number of contexts.
Summary / Lessons Learned
This is an excel overview of the MBP in WASH resource database. All the resources were reviewed by the consultants for the Evidence Building Study in 2020 (GWC). These resources are included in this database and represent a comprehensive library of MBP in WASH resources.
Conceptually, simplified sewerage is the same as Conventional Gravity Sewerage, without considering the unnecessary conservative design standards, and with design features that are better adapted to the local situation. The pipes are usually laid within the property boundaries, through either the back or front yards, rather than beneath the central road, allowing for fewer and shorter pipes. Because simplified sewers are typically installed within the condominium, they are often referred to as condominial sewers.
The goal of this technical assistance assignment was to provide support to the emergency WASH sector and local administration, regarding sanitation and faecal sludge management, with focus on value—recovery in emergency settings, in order to sustainably improve the living conditions of displaced populations and their hosting communities.
Of the two billion people worldwide lacking access to at least basic sanitation, seven out of ten live in rural areas (JMP 2019). Progress has been made on increasing rural sanitation and access levels are rising, but challenges remain in reaching the ‘last mile’ or some 10 to 20 per cent of the population (Apanga et al. 2020; UNICEF 2015).
Through a feminist approach to qualitative online survey and document analysis, this research explored how social inequalities intersected with the COVID-19 impact to shape access to WASH in developing countries while also examining the integration of gender into COVID-19 WASH interventions and policies. After describing the inspiration for this study, this article reviews relevant gender studies’ scholarship to explain why gender matters when responding to emergencies through WASH.
The Impact of Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Improvements on Hand Hygiene at Two Liberian Hospitals during the Recovery Phase of an Ebola Epidemic
Fourteen years of civil war left Liberia with crumbling infrastructure and one of the weakest health systems in the world. The 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak exposed the vulnerabilities of the Liberian health system. Findings from the EVD outbreak highlighted the lack of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices, exacerbated by a lack of essential services such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in healthcare facilities.
Where large groups of people are displaced either by conflict or by natural disaster and they are likely to stay in a location for periods in excess of a few weeks, there will be a need to establish and probably subsequently upgrade a centralised water treatment system. This guideline focuses on community level needs where “bulk water treatment” is required. It is devised by the Oxfam Public Health Engineering Team to help provide a reliable water supply where mass displacement of people has occurred, e.g. as found in refugee camps and relief centres.
In a crisis, humanitarians are often responsible for providing or repairing handwashing infrastructure for the affected population. This creates an opportunity for us to build infrastructure and provide products which encourage people to practice handwashing with soap.