This evidence synthesis identifies, synthesizes and evaluates existing evidence of the impacts of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in disease outbreaks in 51 humanitarian contexts in 19 low and middle-income countries. The research team developed theories of change for the WASH interventions under consideration, documenting the theoretical route from intervention activities to outputs, outcomes, and impacts. WASH interventions consistently reduce both the risk of disease and the risk of transmission in outbreak contexts.
Efficacy and effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in emergencies in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review
There are increasing numbers of people affected by natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflict. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are used in nearly all emergency responses to help reduce disease risk. However, there is a lack of summarized evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of these interventions.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene are one part of a cholera control strategy. Household water treatment (HWT) in particular has been shown to improve the microbiological quality of stored water and reduce the disease burden. We conducted a systematic review of published and gray literature to determine the outcomes and impacts of HWT in preventing cholera specifically. Fourteen manuscripts with 18 evaluations of HWT interventions in cholera were identified. Overall, a moderate quality of evidence suggests that HWT int