Rural Sanitation Programming in Challenging Contexts: A desk based review

Publication year
2021
Emergency type
Country

Of the two billion people worldwide lacking access to at least basic sanitation, seven out of ten live in rural areas (JMP 2019). Progress has been made on increasing rural sanitation and access levels are rising, but challenges remain in reaching the ‘last mile’ or some 10 to 20 per cent of the population (Apanga et al. 2020; UNICEF 2015).

Water infrastructure in fragile- and conflict-affected states

Publication year
2020
Emergency type
Country

The key weaknesses identified in water infrastructure systems in urban and peri-urban areas in FCAS are:

  • Internal displacement increases demand for water in urban areas as well as increasing wastewater discharge. Sewage systems are poor.

  • Alternative service providers which are unregulated, more expensive and of lower quality.

  • Naturally where the state is not functioning, coordination of water services and funding is lacking. This includes unclarity of roles and decision-making powers.

Solid Waste and Faecal Sludge Management in Situations of Rapid, Mass Displacement

Publication year
2017
Emergency type
Country

Solid  waste  and  faecal  sludge  management  in  situations  of  rapid  mass  displacement  are  important  to  public  health  and  providing  for  a  betterenvironment.Despite  this,  both  have  been  neglected  in  WASH  programmes,  which  tend  to  have  a  focus  on  water.  Howeverincreasing  efforts  are  being  made  to  find  solutions  to  challenges  in  solid  waste  and  faecal  sludge  management  in  difficult  circumstances  in  humanitarian  emergencies.  Findings from the study includes for solid waste management, the importance of immediately clearing any toxic materi