Of the two billion people worldwide lacking access to at least basic sanitation, seven out of ten live in rural areas (JMP 2019). Progress has been made on increasing rural sanitation and access levels are rising, but challenges remain in reaching the ‘last mile’ or some 10 to 20 per cent of the population (Apanga et al. 2020; UNICEF 2015).
Institute of Development Studies
The key weaknesses identified in water infrastructure systems in urban and peri-urban areas in FCAS are:
Internal displacement increases demand for water in urban areas as well as increasing wastewater discharge. Sewage systems are poor.
Alternative service providers which are unregulated, more expensive and of lower quality.
Naturally where the state is not functioning, coordination of water services and funding is lacking. This includes unclarity of roles and decision-making powers.
Solid waste and faecal sludge management in situations of rapid mass displacement are important to public health and providing for a betterenvironment.Despite this, both have been neglected in WASH programmes, which tend to have a focus on water. Howeverincreasing efforts are being made to find solutions to challenges in solid waste and faecal sludge management in difficult circumstances in humanitarian emergencies. Findings from the study includes for solid waste management, the importance of immediately clearing any toxic materi