Poor lighting at water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities may reduce the usage of latrines and other services such as bathing areas and water collection points; especially by women and children. Generally, poor lighting may contribute to fear of crime and specifically Gender-Based Violence (GBV), which may, in turn, further reduce the use of the WASH facilities. For example, in Haiti, teenage girls surveyed by the United Nations (UN) Stabilisation Mission stated that they were afraid to use latrines at night because of the lack of lighting (Emery et al., 2011).
Violence, Gender & Wash: A Practitioner's Toolkit – Making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services
This toolkit has been developed in response to an acknowledgement that although the lack of access to appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene services (WASH) is not the root cause of violence, it can lead to increased vulnerabilities to violence of varying forms. Incidences have been reported from a wide range of contexts, often anecdotally but with regular occurrence, with a number of targeted studies confirming the same.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene in emergencies: summary review and recommendations for further research
Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions can interrupt diarrhoeal disease transmission and reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality associated with faecal-oral infections. We know that rapid response of effective WASH infrastructure and services can prevent or lessen the impact of diarrhoeal outbreaks that can exacerbate the human suffering accompanying humanitarian crises. In this review summary, we present an overview of current knowledge about what works to prevent disease in emergency WASH response.